The Math Functions (MATH.H)
 Visual C++ 6(c) The Complete Reference Authors: Pappas C.H.,  Murray W.H. Published year: 1998 Pages: 99/207

Chapter 11 - Complete I/O in C

Visual C++ 6: The Complete Reference
Chris H. Pappas and William H. Murray, III
 Formatting Output
 Cs rich assortment of output formatting controls makes it easy to create a neatly printed graph, report, or table. The two main functions that accomplish this formatted output are printf() and the file equivalent form, fprintf(). These functions can use any of the format specifiers shown in Table 11-2. The format specification uses the following form:
 Table 11-2: Format Specifiers for printf() and fprintf() Functions
 TYPE FIELD: Character
 Type
 Format of Output
 c
 int or wint_t
 printf() means a single-byte character.
 wprintf() means a wide character.
 C
 int or wint_t
 printf() means a wide character.
 wprintf() means a single-byte character.
 d
 int
 Signed decimal integer.
 e
 double
 Signed number of the form [ - ]d.ddd e [sign]dddd.
 Here, d is a single decimal digit, ddd is one or more decimal digits, dddd is exactly four decimal digits, and the sign is a + or - .
 E
 double
 Same as e, except E is in front of exponent.
 f
 double
 Signed number of the form [ - ]ddd.ddd. Here, ddd is one or more decimal digits. The number of digits after the decimal point depends upon the precision.
 g
 double
 Signed number in f or e format. The most compact format is used. No trailing zeroes. No decimal point if no digits follow it.
 G
 double
 Same as g format, except E is in front of exponent.
 i
 int
 Signed decimal integer.
 n
 Pointer to integer
 The # of characters written to the stream or buffer.
 Address of buffer given as integer argument.
 o
 int
 Unsigned octal integer.
 p
 Pointer to void
 Address (given by argument) is printed.
 s
 String
 printf() gives a single-byte-character string.
 wprintf() gives a wide-character string.
 (print to NULL or max precision)
 S
 String
 printf() gives a wide-character string.
 wprintf() gives a single-byte-character string.
 (print to NULL or max precision)
 u
 int
 Unsigned decimal integer.
 x
 int
 Unsigned hexadecimal integer (lowercase letters used).
 X
 int
 Unsigned hexadecimal integer (uppercase letters used).
 FLAG FIELD: Flag
 Meaning
 -
 Left-align the result (right alignment is the default).
 +
 Use a leading sign (+ or - ) if number is a signed type (sign used with negative number only is the default).
 When width has 0 prefix, zeroes will be added until the minimum width is reached (no padding is the default).
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 Visual C++ 6(c) The Complete Reference Authors: Pappas C.H.,  Murray W.H. Published year: 1998 Pages: 99/207