An important distortion measure of analog CATV systems. It is
A signal consisting of horizontal sync pulses, vertical sync pulses, and
A direct current signaling system that separates the signals from the voice
See Composite Clock.
An important distortion measure of analog CATV systems. It is mainly caused by third-order distortion in the transmission system.
Composite video is a mixed signal comprised of the luminance (black and white), chrominance (color), blanking pulses, sync pulses and color burst. Composite video is a television signal where the chrominance (
The completed video signal that is the combined result of the primary colors of red, green and blue (RGB) producing all the necessary picture information, such as in the NTSC or PAL TV formats.
A circuit that can be used
The simple explanation: A compound document contains information created by using more than one application. It is a document often
See Compound Document.
A mailbox for mail from all sources ” fax, voice mail, e- mail, pager, etc. See Compound Document.
Television signals transmitted with much less than the usual bit rate. Full standard coding of broadcast quality television typically requires 45 to 90 megabits per second. Compressed video includes signals from 3 mb/s down to 56 Kbps. The lower bit rates typically involve some compromise in picture quality, particularly when there's rapid motion on the screen. See MPEG.
Compression is the art and science of squeezing out unneeded information in a picture, or a stream of pictures (a movie) or sound before sending or storing it. Without compression, you'd never get a movie onto a single DVD platter, and our
The arithmetic formulae which convert a signal into smaller bandwidth or fewer bits.
Compression artifacts are introduced by filtering, conversion transformation, quantization and transmission compression. Loss of resolution, quantization noise and block errors are typically
An element of sound. When you speak in native mode, or acoustically, you create disturbances in the molecules in the air. Those disturbances vary in terms of frequency (i.e., pitch or tone) and amplitude (i.e., volume or power), and travel in a waveform. The wave comprises the compression phase and the rarefaction phase. The compression phase is the phase of high pressure in which the molecules are packed together more tightly than normal. The rarefaction phase, or
Equalizer set for best overall operation for a given range of line conditions. This is often fixed but may be manually adjustable.
COMPrehensive SURFace Analysis. A Novell program that checks the surface of a hard disk, marks off sections that are lousy and therefore shouldn't be written to, and then low level formats the disk. The program is slow, but thorough and
Competitive Telecommunications Association. A national U.S. organization of competitive local and long distance carriers, most of which are facilities-based, and suppliers. ACTA (America's
Computing Technology Industry Association. An organization of over 7,500 computer hardware and software manufacturers,
Northern Telecom DMS central office link to computer interface. With Compucall, an agent can get a screen of information about a caller concurrently with receipt of a call.
A recent creation meaning the combination of telephones, computers, television and data systems.
If something goes wrong in deal, you must go to arbitration before you sue each other. The idea is to save money (fewer
An on-line, dial-up service ” one of the largest worldwide. CompuServe has everything from electronic mail to manufacturer-sponsored forums where you can download files for updated drivers, etc. CompuServe is one of the hardest on line services to find your way around. See the following definitions. CompuServe is now owned by American Online.
You can send electronic mail to CompuServe addresses. Here's the formula: All CompuServe addresses are either of the form 7xxxx,xxx or 1xxxxx,xxx. (where each "x" signifies a digit from 0 to 7). There can be from 2 to 4 digits following the comma. To send mail to such an address from the Internet, change the comma to a period and attach "@CompuServe.com" as is shown in the following examples:
firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
This file transfer protocol is used by the CompuServe information service and no one else. Recovery of
A facility of CompuServe which enables users on a local area network operating Novell Message Handling Service (MHS) software to exchange electronic messages with other MHS users, CompuServe Mail subscribers and users of other E-mail services that can be reached via a CompuServe gateway.
Very powerful computers that sit on networks and are dedicated to heavy mathematical calculations. Brokerage firms use them for complex yield calculations, mathematical modeling, derivatives analysis, etc. Such servers often have as much as a gigabyte in RAM.
This is a definition straight from AT&T Bell Laboratories. "An electronic device that accepts and processes information mathematically according to previous instructions. It provides the result of this processing via visual displays, printed summaries or in an audible form." When it works, it's wonderful. When it doesn't, it's a disaster. The major lessons every computer
CAP. The computerization of professional publishing (as opposed to desktop operations), including true color representation of the layout on the workstation screen.
CBEMA. Association active before Congress and the FCC promoting the interests of the competitive terminal, computer and peripheral equipment industries.
CCIA. Organization of data processing and communications companies which promotes their interests before Congress and the FCC.
A series of three FCC inquiries beginning in 1970 that culminated in a 1990 federal court decision that established that the FCC, if it is to exercise its authority to re-think its post-divestiture policies in light of changed circumstances, must provide reasoned
Computer I, 1970 - The FCC required that any telephone carrier offering enhanced services do so by means of a separate corporate subsidiary. This structural separation was originally thought not to apply to AT&T and their local exchange
Computer II, 1980 - The FCC
Computer III, - the FCC
A concept relatively new to the computer forensics world is computer "fingerprinting" which, in effect,
Deliberate misrepresentation, alteration or disclosure of computer-based data to obtain something of value.
A series of ongoing FCC
Computer Inquiry III, adopted by the FCC in May, 1986, removed the structural separation requirement between basic and enhanced services for the BOCs and for AT&T. CI III
The interface through which the computer connects to the communications circuit. The place where the circuit is "plugged" in.
An AIN (Advanced
Picture a hall full of PC servers, lined one after another. Now you have the concept of a farm.
Computer telephony adds computer intelligence to the making, receiving, and managing of telephone calls. Harry Newton coined the term in 1992. Computer telephony has two basic goals: to make making and receiving phone calls easier, i.e. to enhance one's personal productivity and second, to
Voice, fax and electronic mail, fax blasters, fax servers and fax routers, paging and unified messaging (also called integrated messaging) and Internet Web-vectored phones, fax and video messaging.
Inbound and outbound call handling, "predictive" and "preview" dialing, automated attendants, LAN /
Transaction Processing and Information Access via the Phone. Interactive voice response, audiotex, customer access to enterprise data, "giving data a voice," fax on demand and shopping on the World Wide Web.
Adding Intelligence (and thus value) to Phone Calls.
Screen pops of customer records coincident with inbound and outbound phone calls, mirrored Web page "pops," smart
Voice recognition, text-to-speech, digital signal processing, applications generators (of all varieties ” GUI to forms-based to script-based), VoiceView, DSVD, computer-based fax routing, USB (Universal Serial Bus), GeoPort, video and audio compression, call progress, dial pulse recognition, caller ID and ANI, digital network interfaces (T-1, E-1, ISDN BRI and PRI, SS7, frame relay and ATM), voice modems, client-server telephony, logical modem interfaces, multi-PC telephony synchronization and coordination software, the communicating PC, the Internet, the Web and the "Intranet."
New Core Standards.
The ITU-T's T.120 (document conferencing) and H.320 (video conferencing), Microsoft's TAPI ” an integral part of Windows 95 and NT, Novell's TSAPI ” a phone switch control NLM running under NetWare. Intel's USB and InstantON. Natural MicroSystems / Mitel's MVIP and H-MVIP. Dialogic has SCSA. And the industry has ECTF.
That's today. But what really excites is the potential. It's huge. Despite the above, phone calls today are dumb, seriously bereft of common sense. Few phones have "back- space erase." 75% of business calls end in voice mail! Often in voice mail jail. Every call not completed is an irritated customer and a lost sale. Computer telephony addresses the waste. Computer telephony adds intelligence to the making and receiving of phone calls. Bingo,
The best news: We now have the technology, the resources, the computer power, the new standards and the muscle to back our hype. We also have many new players who are, thankfully, not burdened by the assumptions of yesteryear's telecommunications industry. We also have legions of developers and systems and integrators who are
Once a year, typically in
CTI. The integration of the telephony function with computer applications, commonly used to automate call centers.
Programs that help
CVS. First there was carpal tunnel syndrome, also known as repetitive stress
The COMmunications SATellite corporation was created by Congress as the exclusive provider to the U.S. of satellite channels for international communications. COMSAT was once the U.S. representative to Intelsat and Inmarsat, two international groups responsible for satellite and maritime communications. Comsat Corporation ceased to exist as an independent company in August 2000, when it was
COMmunications SECurity. A U.S. federal government term for "measures and controls taken to deny security unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications." The government takes this very seriously.
A domestic communications satellite system from Comsat.
Circuit Order Number.
A signal in which the STS envelope
A virtual tributary (VT x Nc) that is composed of several (N) VTs combined. Its payload is transported as a single entity rather than separate signals.
Linking together in a series or chain. A SONET/SDH term. Concatenation is a mechanism for allocating very large amounts of bandwidth for transport of a payload associated with a "superrate service," which is a service at a transmission rate greater than the normal maximum rate of OC-1. The set of bits in the payload is treated as a single entity, as opposed to being treated as separate bits or bytes or time slots. The payload, therefore, is accepted, multiplexed, switched, transported and delivered as a single, contiguous "
A fundamental concept to telephony. Applies to a Switching Network (or portion of one) that has more inputs than outputs. For example, communications from a number of phones are sent out on a smaller number of outgoing lines. The theory is that, since not all the phones are being used at any one time, fewer trunks than phones are needed. Some phone system designs assume that only 5% of the phones will be in use at any one time. Some phone systems design assume 10%. In some phone-intensive industries, you can't make any assumptions about concentration. You have to assume one line per phone. No concentration. See Concentration Ratio.
The ratio between lines and trunks in a concentrated carrier system or line concentrator. See Concentrator.
A device which allows a relatively large number of devices or circuits (typically slow speed ones) to share either a single circuit or a relatively small number of circuits. In other words, the traffic is concentrated through a process of multiplexing, in which many relatively low capacity inputs from devices or circuits are folded together in order that they might share a single and typically higher capacity circuit which connects to a device or network of a higher order. Assuming that the capacity of the shared facility is sufficient to support all the lower order inputs in a satisfactory manner (i.e., transmission time and response time are not compromised to an unreasonable extent), the benefit of the concentrator is that communications costs are typically
A Multistation Access Unit (MAU). Token Ring LANs make use of MAUs to concentrate traffic from multiple nodes (e.g., workstations) to the LAN backbone, which may consist of nothing more than multiple
A LAN hub. See also Hub.
In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the circular insulation.
The amount by which a fiber's core is not centered in its cladding. The distance between the center of the two concentric circles specifying the cladding diameter and the center of the two concentric circles specifying the core diameter.
A minimal-depth concrete pour to encase
The shared use of resources by multiple interactive users or applications at the same time. Concurrency often means that a company need only buy as many licenses to a program as it has people using the program at one time ” concurrent users, in other words. See Software Metering.
A feature that allows multiple users to execute database transactions simultaneously without interfering with each other.
When you process the same transaction in several places simultaneously on different equipments. This idea is to provide the ultimate in moment-to-moment disaster protection.
Companies that buy software for multiple computers typically buy one copy of the program and a license to reproduce it up to a certain number of times. This is called a site license, though it may apply to its use throughout an organization. Site licenses vary. Some require that a copy be bought for each potential user ” the only purpose being to
A device for storing up electrical energy and consisting of two or more conducting surfaces or electrodes separated by an insulating medium called a dialectic.
An antenna consisting of two capacity areas.
Microphone which operates through changes in
A circuit that has conditioning equipment to obtain the desired characteristics for voice or data transmission. See Conditioning.
A loop that has conditioning equipment to obtain the desired line characteristics for voice or data transmission. See Conditioning.
The adjustment of the electrical characteristics of transmission lines to improve their performance for specific uses. Conditioning involves the "tuning" of the line or addition/deletion of equipment to improve its transmission characteristics. Conditioning may involve the insertion of components such as equalizers, resistors, capacitors,
Equipment added to a circuit for the express purposes of matching transmission levels and impedances or equalizing transmission and delay to bring circuit losses, levels, and distortion within specified limits of CCITT standards, or in U.S. practice, common carrier tariffs. See Load Coil.
Busy. Voice Mail. Out of service. All the situations that a phone line is likely to find itself in.
A shared tenancy cable or shared ownership facility such as a transatlantic fiber cable. Multiple
Substances which offer relatively little resistance to the passage of an electric current.
A term used to describe the ability of a material to carry an electrical charge, i.e., to allow electrons to flow. Conductivity is the reciprocal of specific resistance. Usually
Some atoms do not hold their electrons tightly, and in materials made of these
A pipe, usually metal but often plastic, that runs either from floor to floor or along a floor or ceiling to protect cables. A conduit protects the cable and
The path taken by a conduit or group of
Any combination of ducts, conduits, maintenance holes, hand- holes and vaults joined to form an integrated whole.
A condom. So called because used condoms are often found under the boardwalk.
Participant in a conference call who is not the call controller. This definition
A telecommunications facility or service which
Connecting three or more people into one phone conversation. You used to have to place conference calls through an AT&T operator (you still can). But now you can also organize conference calls with most modern phone systems or a conference bridge. If conferencing is important to you, make sure your conferencing device has amplification and balancing. If not, it will simply electrically join the various conversations together and people at either end won't be able to hear each other. There are different types of conference devices you can buy, including special teleconferencing devices that sit on conference tables and perform the function of a speakerphone, albeit a lot better. There are also dial-in devices called conference bridges. But, however, you use these devices, they will requires lines (and/or trunks). If you install one inside your phone system, be careful to have the extra spare extensions. For a conference of 10 people, you'll typically need 10 extensions connected to your conference bridge. See Conference Bridge.
"He's on a conference. He can't speak with you at present." Conf rence des
A conference call in which each of the people wishing to join the conference simply dials a special "Meet-Me" Conference phone number, which automatically connects them into the conference. It is a feature of some PBXs and also some special Conferencing Equipment. See Conference Bridge.
Several parties can be added to a phone conversation through Conferencing.
A confidence interval is the range of values within which the true value is assured to lie. Confidence level must be two figures.
The ability to receive a
A facsimile message that is sent confidentially into memory or a private mailbox, to be retrieved by the receiver at a later time. It's usually retrieved by using a confidential passcode or password.
The hardware and software arrangements that define a computer or telecommunications system and thus determine what the system will do and how well it will do it. This information can be entered in the CMOS and EEPROM setup programs.
An ATM term. The phase in which the LE Client discovers the LE Service.
Rolm/IBM words for those databases which represent unique user specifications relating to system and phone features. These databases can be entered on-site and are not part of the generic software which runs the phone system.
An unformatted ASCII file that stores initialization information for an application.
One of five categories of network management defined by the ISO. Configuration management is the process of adding, deleting and modifying connections, addresses and topologies within a network. See ISO.
A SCSA system service which
An Intel Plug'n Play term. A driver, such as the ISA Configuration Utility, that configures devices and informs other device drivers of the resource requirements of all devices installed in a computer system. The Windows 95 Resource Kit defined configuration manager as the central component of a Plug and Play system that drives the process of locating devices, setting up their nodes in the hardware tree, and running the resource allocation process. Each of the three phases of configuration management-boot time (BIOS), real mode, and protected mode-has its own configuration manager.
A database repository for information about a computer's configuration.
Service management tool with a Graphical User Interface (GUI).
Element management service tool with a GUI.
CDLRD. The date a common carrier accepts the facility design proposed by the Telco.
A test performed by an independent body to determine if a particular piece of equipment or system satisfies the criteria of a particular standard, sometimes a contract to buy the equipment. See also Compatible and Compliant.
Central office with the ability to provide originating and terminating feature group D local access and transport area access service.
A condition that arises when a communications link, path, or network experiences an offered load (i.e., the amount of traffic
For example, consider a T-1 link connected to the outgoing port of a switch. If the switch attempts to offer a traffic load in excess of 1.544 Mbps, a congestion condition arises, and can be resolved in one of several ways. First, the switch can simply discard the excess data. Discard Eligible (DE) data applications generally will not suffer beyond their expectations unless the congestion condition becomes extreme. Second, the switch can buffer the excess data until such time as the congestion condition eases; this process is known as "congestion control," and is limited to the maximum capacity of the buffers involved. If the congestion condition persists and the switch discards no data, eventually the congestion backs up all the way to the user terminal, and the application ceases to function in an acceptable manner. See also Utilization.
Condition in which the retransmission of frames in an ATM network results in little or no traffic successfully arriving at the destination. Congestion collapse frequently occurs in ATM networks composed of switches that do not have adequate and effective buffering mechanisms complimented by intelligent packet discard or ABR congestion feedback mechanisms.
The process whereby packets are discarded to clear buffer congestion in a packet-switched network.
The ability of a network to effectively deal with heavy traffic
A direct electronic method of delivering CLEC and Reseller usage data files and Reseller bills, and transmitting CLEC ASRs. Available in several platforms including NDM-MVS for mainframe and NDM-PC for personal computers. Also known as Network Data Mover (NDM).
Measure of computer and telecommunications system usage. The interval during which the user was on-line for a session.
In Bluetooth terminology, connectable mode means a device that responds to paging (an attempt to establish a communication link) is said to be in connectable mode. The opposite of connectable mode is non-connectable mode.
A voice recognition term for words spoken clearly in succession without pauses. For recognition to occur, words or utterances must be separated by at least 50
A state in which a device is actively participating in a call. This state includes logical participation in a call as well as physical participation (i.e., a Connected device cannot be on Hold).
The length of time a path between two objects is active.
A Windows NT term. A user accessing a computer or a resource across the network.
The manner in which the facilities of a common carrier (phone company) and the customer are interconnected.
A plastic block containing metal wiring terminals to establish connections from one group of wires to another. Usually each wire can be connected to several other wires in a bus or common arrangement. A 66-type block is the most common type of connecting block. It was invented by Western Electric. Northern Telecom has one called a Bix block. There are others. These two are probably the most common. A connecting block is also called a terminal block, a
A device providing mechanical cable terminations.
A path between telephones that allows the transmission of speech and other signals.
An electrical continuity of circuit between two wires or two units, in a piece of apparatus.
An SCSA term which means a TDM data path between two Resources or two Groups. It connects the inputs and outputs of the two Resources, and may be unidirectional (simplex) if either of the Resources has only an input or an output.
An ATM connection consists of concatenation of ATM Layer links in order to provide an end-to-end information transfer capability to access points.
Software from Mitel, which
A number assigned to a workstation that attaches to a server; it may be a different number each time the workstation attaches. Connection numbers are also assigned to print servers, as well as other applications and processes that use the server connections.
The model of interconnection in which communication proceeds through three
CONS. An OSI protocol for packet-switched networks that exchange information over a virtual circuit (a logical circuit where connection
A communications protocol in which a logical connection is established between communicating devices. Connection-oriented service is also referred to as virtual-circuit service.
A protocol in which a connection is established prior to initiation of data transmission,
Data transmission technique involving setting up a connection before transmission and disconnecting it afterward. A type of service in which information always traverses the same pre-established path or link between two points. See Connectionless Service.
A protocol in which it is not necessary to establish, maintain, and terminate a connection between source and destination prior to transmission. (Example: IPX, IP)
A circuit-switching service whereby a connection is switched into place at the beginning of a session and held in place until the session is completed. Also referred to as circuit switching. The circuit switched in place may be real or virtual. See Circuit Switching.
The speed of a data communications circuit. Some circuits are symmetrical and can maintain the same speed in both directions; others are
The model of interconnection in which communication takes place without first establishing a connection and without immediate acknowledgment of receipt. Sometimes it is (imprecisely) called datagram. Examples: Internet IP and OSI CLNP, UDP.
A form of communication between applications in which all data is exchanged during a single connection.
A mode of data transmission in which the transmitting device
In connectionless transmission, each packet is prepended with a header containing destination address information sufficient to permit the independent delivery of the packet. In other words, each packet within a stream of packets is independently
A type of communications network in which no logical connection (i.e. no leased line or
CLNS. Packet-switched network where each packet of data is independent and contains complete address and control information; can minimize the effect of individual line failures and distribute the load more
A packet of data is broadcast over the network without targeting a specific recipient to receive the packet.
A networking mode in which individual data packets in a network (local or long distance) traveling from one point to another are directed from one intermediate node to the next until they reach their ultimate destination. Because packets may take different routes, they must be reassembled at their destination. The receipt of a transmission is typically acknowledged from the ultimate destination to the point of origin. A connectionless packet is frequently called a datagram. A connectionless service is
Data transmission without prior establishment of a connection.
CCH. A unit of traffic measurement; the number of connections established at a switching point per hour.
A domain of connected components that
The Law of Connectivity is another way to describe Metcalfe's Law. That is, the value of a network rises by at least, and probably more than, the square of the number of nodes, n, or units connected. For the Internet, the value is probably much greater than n-squared because, unlike most telephone connections, a single website can connect to more than one node at the same time. See Metcalfe's Law.
Connectoid is the icon you create for a connection in the Dial-up Networking window in Windows.
A device that electrically connects wires or fibers in cable to equipment, or other wires or fibers. Wire and optical connectors most often join transmission media to equipment (host computers and terminal devices) or cross connects. A Connector at the end of a telephone cable or wire is used to join that cable to another cable with a matching Connector or to some other telecommunications device. Residential telephones use the REJ- 11C connector. Computer terminals with an RS-232-C interface, use the DB-25 connector. The RS-232-C standard is actually the electrical method of using the pins on a DB-25. See RS-232-C.
A male device used to terminate a cable.
The fixed or stationary half of a connection that is mounted on a panel/bulkhead. Receptacles mate with plugs. Receptacles are typically
The maximum value in dB of the difference in insertion loss between mating optical connectors (e.g., with remating, temperature cycling, etc.). Also called Optical Connector Variation.
Connection Oriented Network Service. See Connection Oriented Network Service.
The agreement which divested the Bell Operating Companies from AT&T. It took effect at midnight on December 31, 1983. Also known as the MFJ (Modified Final Judgment), as it modified the 1956 Consent Decree.
A basic principle
A large telephone which a PBX attendant uses to answer incoming calls and transfer them around the organization. Before you buy a PBX for your company, make sure your operator has checked out its console. Some are very difficult to use. Some are easy. Some operators hate some consoles. Some consoles hate some operators. You can measure the efficiency of consoles by counting keystrokes to do simple jobs and comparing them ” e.g. answer an incoming line, dial an extension and transfer the call. How many keystrokes does your PBX take?
The device which allows communications between a computer operator and a computer.
The console is the Novell NetWare name for the monitor and keyboard of the file server. Here you can view and control the file server or router activity. At the console, you can enter commands to control disk drives, send messages, set the file server or router clock, shut down the file server, and view file server information. NetWare commands you can enter only from the console (for example, MONITOR) are called console commands. Keep your file server locked up and away from
Some PBXs can work without a console. Some must have a console. It's good to check. Consoles are expensive. If you don't want one ” because your company is small ” you don't want to be forced to buy one, only to have it sit idly by.
Carriers that provide connection both as interexchange carriers and international carriers.
CP. A location for interconnection between horizontal cables extending from building pathways and horizontal cables extending into furniture
CBR. A data service where the bits are conveyed regularly in time and at a constant rate,
Physical line specification selection indicating full duplex line in bisync network. See SNA.
A telephone company definition. Certain devices used in dial equipment for setting up calls may well have practically constant holding times. For estimating the probabilities of congesting, the result of substituting a constant holding time equal to the average of a varying holding time seems to be of negligible moment from a theoretical standpoint. (See Holding Time).
The assemblage of
Procedures and protocols that determine a route across a backbone take into account resource requirements and resource availability instead of simply using the shortest path.
A detailed plan of placement, removal, and
The building of the new information infrastructure by telecommunications and cable companies.
To ask or seek the advice of another.
To seek another's endorsement of a decision you've already made.
A person who gets paid more than you to tell your boss what you told him. See Consult and Consultant Liaison Programs.
Large users often use communications consultants to help them choose systems and long distance phone lines. In recognition of the important role
See Consultation Hold.
PBX feature which allows an extension to place a call on hold while speaking with another call. The idea is "consulting with" someone while you have someone else on the phone.
You buy a $200 "photo quality" printer. The printing is fabulous. Looks just like a Kodak glossy photo. You ask yourself: How can they afford to produce such gorgeous quality when they charge so little money for the printer? Easy. They charge an
CCF. A forum convened by the ACA (Australian Communications Authority) to consult with consumers and their representatives about communications issues.
A strip or piece of metal which makes an electrical contact when some electromechanical device like a relay or a
See Smart Card.
A fancy name for a call center, except that it also includes email and instant messaging, in addition to phone calls.
A log of all the contacts, either by phone or letter, made with a prospect or customer. This is an important factor in building up a marketing database which can be used to accurately target prospects.
Uses a flat bar of light-emitting diode that directly touches the original. It eliminates the step of having the diodes move through the lens, which causes poorer resolution. This method is more sophisticated than the charged-
A business has customers and prospects. In computerese, they're called "contacts." Software to "manage" your customers and prospects is called contact management software. It has three elements: First, a screen or two of information about that contact (address, phone number, notes about your conversations, etc.) Second, the ability to print lists, and mailers, etc. And third, often a tie-in with your phone system to let your computer dial your
See Contact Management.
The section of the jack wire inside the plug opening as shown in Subpart F of FCC rule 6B, figures 6B.500 (a) (3) and 6B.500 (b) (3).
See Continental Telecom Inc.
In local area networking technology it's the shared access method that allows stations to use the medium on a first-come, first-
A programmable port type which can initiate a connection only to a preprogrammed port or group of ports.
In today's information rich and hyped society, "
CAM. Imagine you're building a machine to switch conversations on the Internet. Since the Internet uses packets switching, you have to read the packets that come flying at you, figure quickly where to switch them (based on rules and a database) and switch them quickly. A CAM does holds the rules and the database and works very quickly. Today's CAMs let you ask them millions of questions each second. CAMs are used in today's heavy duty IP (Internet Protocol) routers. Here's a technical definition:
A CAM is a semiconductor integrated circuit that allows a table of data to be stored in a memory array that incorporates special
CAMs are now used in data packet forwarding and classification in networking equipment, commonly called routers and switches. Here, CAMs perform look-up functions based on elements of a cell/frame/packet/datagram header to make intelligent forwarding decisions at wire speed. To
On the Internet, content delivery (sometimes called content distribution or content caching) is a service that entails copying pages from a Web site to geographically dispersed servers and, when a page is
CDN. When web traffic gets heavy, performance suffers and connections can become excrutiatingly slow. A growing number of organizations are using content delivery networks (CDNs) to solve the problem. By storing data on different servers across the Internet on content delivery service providers, it is possible to ensure that content is closer -- and more quickly accessible ” to users. Such network architecture are devised to maximize the efficiency of distributing and delivering information across public Internet and large-scale private networks. A CDN uses intelligent switches, cache servers, traffic managers, content routers, and other technologies. See Content Delivery Service Providers.
These companies own servers that reside on the Internet and basically guarantee the delivery of Web content to end-users. Customers of these content delivery providers are heavily trafficked Web sites, e-commerce sites, and push content providers such as news channels. The main idea is to place content as close to customers as possible to help speed delivery. Once a data request comes into a Web site, instead of the original Web site's server handling the request, a content delivery service provider takes over the task. These service providers all use proprietary software algorithms and probing techniques to guarantee that the content gets from their servers to the end-users quickly. Typically, the data that reside on these content delivery service provider's servers for transmission to end-users have been bandwidth-
The filtering of email based on the contents of the header and the body of the email message.
CMS. A method of managing unstructured content (i.e., information) for Web-based (i.e., Internet, Intranet, and Extranet) access via a browser. A CMS is an applications software system, commonly modular in nature, that performs a number of functions. Once the content (e.g., a white paper, article, brochure, spreadsheet, drawing or schematic, or executable program) has been developed, it is checked into the content repository, which resides on a content server. Along with the content, various meta- data (i.e., data that can change, and can help others find and view the content), is checked in. The content is then transformed into a Web-viewable format though a refining process, and all words in the content are indexed for future searches. The publishing module may be capable of handling dynamic content "on the fly," which feature is critical if fast-breaking news must be posted in near-realtime. Finally, the content is run through a content publisher module, which creates a file in a content folder, and establishes links to files and folders containing previously published content. The publishing process typically is template- based. The CMS also may include a security mechanism that grants or denies access to content, perhaps at the content, folder, or even page level. Such a security mechanism is particularly important if links are available to databases, as access privileges to sensitive data must be managed carefully. An embedded search engine might support searches by subject, full-text description, author, department, date range, or content type. Content subscription may be supported, allowing the subscriber to be automatically notified via e-mail when specific content changes. The CMS may also automatically
Voice processing is the broad term made up of two narrower terms ” call processing and content processing. Call processing consists of physically moving the call around. Think of call processing as switching. Content consists of actually doing something to the call's content, like digitizing it and storing it on a hard disk, or editing it, or recognizing it (voice recognition) for some purpose (e.g. using it as input into a computer program).
A fancy name for a writer, also called a language therapist by William Safire in the Sunday New York Times Magazine of January 28, 1996.
CSP. Another name for a content provider. See Content Provider.
Content is a new fancy name for what telecommunications facilities carry. It includes movies, music, games, on-line books, information, etc. Content suppliers are thus movie
See Layer 7 Switching.
Contention occurs when several devices (e.g., phones, PCs, or workstations) are vying for access to a line and only one of them can get it at one time. Some method is usually established for selecting the winner (e.g., first in, first out; or camp on) and
An independent consultancy headed by Ray Horak, Senior Editor of Newton's Telecom Dictionary. In fact, and according to Horak's mother, wife and children, The Context Corporation is the world's greatest consultancy, headed by the world's greatest, sweetest, most intelligent and most handsome man. Note: Horak's ex- wives and girlfriends have offered alternative (and unprintable) definitions. www.ContextCorporation.com
Many telephones now have an LCD screen. Sometimes such screens have unmarked keys underneath them and/or at their side. What these keys do depends on the "labels" appearing on the screen. They are called "context dependent" because what those keys do depends on where the call is at that time. The first context dependent soft keys were on the Mitel SuperSet 4 phones. When the hand- set was resting on the phone, only three of the six context sensitive keys had meaning. One said "Program," one said "Msg" and one said "Redial." When you picked the phone up, three buttons would now be
Buttons on a phone or device that have a display next to them. The buttons perform different functions depending on the what the screen shows when you press the button. See Context Dependent Soft Keys.
A term from the computer industry which means that "Help" is only a keystroke away. Hit F1 and Help information will flash on the screen. That information will be relevant to what you're doing now, i.e. that help is within the context of what's going on right this moment. See also Context Dependent Soft Keys.
The act of stopping one running task in a microprocessor and starting another. Context switches are performed by the kernel. The technique with which an Intel microprocessor handles multitasking is called a context switch. The CPU performs a context switch when it transfers control from one task to another. In the process, it saves the processor state (including registers) of one task, then loads the values for the task that is taking control. Context switching is the kind of multitasking that is done in standard mode Windows, where the CPU switches from one task to another, rather than allocating time to each task in
Imagine you receive a email from your friendly CD supplier. In it, he talks about the latest from Madonna. The email mentions the name of the CD. You notice its title is in blue and
Ports occurring in unbroken numeric sequence.
This term refers to the process of selecting individual DS-0 circuits, within a DS-1 circuit or DS-3 circuit, which are adjacent to one another. Due to the timing difference which can result when non-adjacent channels are selected, contiguously slotted channels are preferable when the end equipment is designed to
CONUS. The area within the boundaries of the District of Columbia and the 48 contiguous states as well as the offshore areas outside the boundaries of the
CONTEL. A telephone company made up of more than 600 small phone companies. In 1990 it merged with GTE in a tax-free swap of shares. CONTEL was formed and grown by Charles Wohlstetter, an ex-stockbroker, who became
See Morse Code.
An uninterrupted electrical path.
A check to determine whether electrical current flows continuously throughout the length of a single wire on individual wires in a cable.
CCT. A single frequency of 2000 Hz which is transmitted by the sending exchange and looped back by the receiving exchange. Reception of the returned indicates the channel is working. See ITU-T Recommendation.271.
A word used in voice recognition to mean a type of recognition that requires no pause between utterances.
This is a feature of some phones (especially cellular phones) that sends touchtone sounds for as long as the key is held down, allowing access to services such as voice mail and answering machines that need long-duration tones. Some phones automatically have continuous DTMF; some don't. It's worth checking. Continuous DTMF makes a lot more sense.
A term for the world we live in ” in which information (text, voice, video, images, etc.) is
CPM. An efficient means of modulation for purposes of digital transmission over a radio system, such as microwave. CPM modulates the signal by changing its phase, or position, much as does Phase Shift Keying (PSK) in modems. CPM is a memory-dependent technique which requires that the receiving device compare the value of the starting phase of the transmitted signal to the value of the ending phase of the previously transmitted signal. Thereby, the value of the transmitted symbols can be determined, as long as the transmitter and receiver are carefully synchronized and the bit intervals, therefore, are consistent in time. Each value can represent one or more bits, depending on whether a compression technique is used to improve the efficiency of data transmission. See also PSK.
CW. A series of electromagnetic waves or cycles, all of which have a constant or unvarying amplitude. Continuous wave usually refers to the output of a device (e.g., an optical fiber laser) which is turned on, but which is not modulated with a signal.
Capable of having one of an infinite number of values, differing from each other by an arbitrarily small amount. Usually used to describe analog signals or analog transmission.
For the purpose developing applications in the telecommunications industry, there are two types of contracts: Active and Passive. An active contract is one you must sign. A passive contract is the type of contract you find in a software package. By opening the shrink wrapped package, you are committing yourself to the terms of the contract inside the package ” the terms of which mostly consist of not duplicating the software in an unauthorized way.
In switching systems, the overall control of the switches. This includes monitoring to determine when action is needed, logic to determine what action is needed, and command, to initiate the actions.
A multiconductor cable made for operation in control or signal circuits.
A control channel is a logic channel carrying network information rather than actual voice or data messages. Within a cellular telephone system, several of the channels are assigned as 'control' channels. Instead of supporting voice communications, these channels allow the base station to broadcast information to the cellular phones in its area. Cellular phones continuously monitor this broadcast information, selecting the base station that provides the best signal.
A non-printing ASCII character which controls the flow of communications or a device. Control
X.21 interface circuit used to send control information from DTE to DCE.
A Control VCC links the LEC to the LECS. Control VCCs also link the LEC to the LES and carry LE_ARP traffic and control frames. The control VCCs never carry data frames.
The central "
Equipment used to transmit orders from an alarm center to remote site to enable you to do things by remote control.
Field in frame containing control information.
A cellular phone term. A 6-bit flag transmitted in the forward channel data stream, comprised of a 5-bit busy/idle flag and one bit of the 5-bit decode status flag.
Indicates that the cellular phone is outside the "home" system.
Signalling messages that provide the control of setup, maintenance, and teardown of L2TP sessions and tunnels. See L2TP.
Measures taken to minimize electromagnetic radiation emanating from a system or component, or to minimize electromagnetic interference. Such measures are taken for purposes of security and/or the reduction of interference, especially on ships and aircraft.
A national operational plan to minimize the use of electromagnetic radiation in the United States and its possessions and the Panama Canal Zone in the event of attack or imminent threat thereof, as an aid to the navigation of
Programming-like constructs (IF, ELSE, WHILE, GOTO, and so on) provided by
The control panel on the Apple Macintosh is for general hardware and software settings. Icons allow a user to customize the system or application, or select a particular service, such as a specific printer, set the sound level, the date and time and choose an Ethernet connection through the network control panel.
The ATM protocol includes a Control Plane which addresses all aspects of network signaling and control, through all 4
CP. In IBM SNA (Systems Network Architecture) networks, a Control Point is a type of NAU (Network Accessible Unit, previously known as Network Addressable Unit). A CP manages the network resources within its domain of control, controlling the activation and
A worldwide network of Global Positioning System monitoring and control installations that ensure the accuracy of satellite
In the public network, control signals are used for auxiliary functions in both customer loop signaling and interoffice trunk signaling. Control signals are used in the customer loop for Coin Collect and Coin Return and Party Identification. Control signals used in interoffice trunk signaling include Start Dial (Wink or Delay Dial) signals, Keypulse (KP) signals or Start Pulse (ST) signals.
In modem communications, control signals are modem interface signals used to announce, start, stop or modify a function. Here's a table showing common RS-232-C and ITU-T V.24 control signals
Data Set Ready (DSR)
Carrier Detect (CD)
Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
Ring Indicator (RI)
On a multi-access link, a station that is in charge of such functions as selection and polling.
The mathematical analysis of the systems and mechanisms for achieving a desired state under changing internal and external conditions.
An AT&T term for the tier within the Universal Information Services network node that provides the transport network's connection control function.
An architectural component of a processor chip which orchestrates processor activity and handles timing to make sure the processor doesn't overlap functions.
When access to a system is limited to authorized programs, processes or other systems (as in a network).
CEV. It is a low maintenance, water-tight concrete or fiberglass container typically buried in the ground which provides permanent housing for remote switches, remote line
In the truest sense, a device which controls the operation of another piece of equipment. In its more common data communications sense, a device between a host and terminals that relays information between them. It administers their communication. Controllers may be housed in the host, can be stand-alone, or can be located in a file server. Typically one controller will be connected to several terminals. The most common controller is the IBM Cluster Controller for their 370 family of mainframes. In an automated radio, a controller is a device that commands the radio transmitter and receiver, and that performs processes, such as automatic link establishment, channel scanning and selection, link quality analysis, polling, sounding, message store and forward, address protection, and
Participant in a conference call who sets up the conference call.
Also called a hard disk/diskette drive controller. It's an add-in card which controls how data are written to and retrieved from your PC's various floppy and hard drives. Controller cards come in various flavors, including MFN and SCSI. Controller cards are the devices used to format hard drives. Controller cards are not hard drive specific (except within categories). Controller cards will format many drives. But once you have a hard drive that has been formatted by that one controller card, it tends to prefer talking to that controller card forever. If you switch your hard disk to another machine, switch the controller card along with it. If you switch your hard disk to another machine, but not the controller card, then format the hard disk. That's not a "100% Do It Or Else You'll Be Disappointed" rule. But just a "Play It Safe and Switch Them" rule.
A modem that shifts all the protocol management, error detection and correction, and data compression onto software running on the system's CPU. This allows the modem manufacturer to make a much cheaper modem that does not require the memory or processing power of a traditional modem. Also known as a soft modem.
In digital facsimile, density step lines in received copy resulting from
A term for CONtiguous United States (lower 48 states). See Contiguous United States.
Design techniques used in switching system construction to permit safe heat dissipation from the equipment without the need for cooling fans.
The device which covers the
An area allocated for heat circulation and distribution. Convector areas, typically built into a wall, can be used as a satellite location only if a more suitable area is unavailable.
A rule of conduct or behavior which has been reached by general agreement, commonly by a standards-making body, whether formal (e.g., the ITU) or ad hoc (e.g., Bell Telephone Laboratories) in nature. For example, the T-1 framing conventions were developed by Bell Labs for use within the Bell System network in North America, and later were
The inter-machine signaling system that has been traditionally used in North America for the purpose of transmitting the called number's address digits (telephone number) from the originating end office to the switching machine that will terminate the call. In this system, all dialed digits are received by the originating switching machine, a path is selected, and the sequence of
Used to describe trends toward the bundling of services by operators. Principally found in the United States, where regulation historically has separated the local and long distance carrier functions.
A measure of the clarity of a color monitor. A measure of how closely the red, green and blue guns in a color monitor track each other when drawing a color image. The other measures are focus and dot pitch.
A routing term. The point at which all the internetworking devices share a common understanding of the routing topology. The slower the convergence time, the slower the recovery from link failure.
The word to describe a trend ” now that most media can be represented digitally ” for the traditional distinctions between industries to blur and for companies from consumer electronics, computer and telecommunications industries to form alliances, partnerships and other relationships, as well as to raid each others markets.
The word "convergence" as a fashion word of the "new" management was set in motion in 1992 when Tele-Communications Inc. chairman John C. Malone told a cable- show audience that his vision of all-digital, fiber-
Also known as convergence or composite billing. This is a fancy name for one phone company ” local or long distance ” providing a total communications bill to the customer. That total bill would include everything the customer buys in telecommunications services ” from local, long distance, Internet access, cell phones, paging, etc. In late 1996, the belief developed in the telecom industry that if you "controlled" the bill to the customer, you would be in far better shape to sell the customer more services. The concept has some validity, especially if you also believe in fairies.
CS. An ATM term. SEE CS.
Convergent billing software is software which allows telecom companies (such as local and long distance companies) to bundle services, such as long distance, cellular, paging and cable, together onto a single monthly invoice. Bundling helps service providers offer competitive rates, boost revenue per customer and reduce customer
The route from originating port to terminating port for a twoway call. A conversation thus typically requires two ports on most PBXs.
The time spent on a conversation from the time the person at the other end picks up to the time either of you hang up. Conversation time plus dialing, searching and ringing time equal the time your circuit will be used during a call.
Also called chat mode. Interactive data communications carried on between data terminals in a fashion similar to speech conversation.
An MCI International product providing real time exchange between Telex terminals or other compatible devices that allows instantaneous, two-way conversations in writing.
In signaling, the substitution of one, two, or three digits for received digits for the purpose of directing the call through the next office.
Conversion Rate is a Web term. It is a measure of the people who log on to your site and then click through to a second page. The higher that percentage is, the more interesting the site looks to them. Basically, a web site owner wants to get people off the first page and into the areas that make you money.
A device for changing AC to DC and vice versa. An ancient radio term.
An adapter, such as one that allows a modular phone to be plugged into a 4-hole jack.
A British term. A repeater that also converts from one media type to another, such as from fibre (British spelling) to copper. Often called a media adaptor.
A device used in RF distribution systems to convert from one frequency to another. May also control channel access.
Error protection code encoding data bits in a continuous stream. An error-correction code in which each m-bit information symbol to be encoded is transformed into an n-bit symbol (n>m) where the transformation is a function of the last k information symbols, and k is referred to as the constraint length of the code. Convolutional codes are often used to improve the performance of radio and satellite links.
The first batch of cookies were originally
Cookies are used widely in the client/server environments of the WWW element of the Internet, as well as in Intranets. Their advantage is that they can automatically identify the client to the server, thereby shortening or eliminating the user identification element of the log-in process. For example, an electronic shopping application can use a cookie to identify the shopper during subsequent access sessions, storing information about shopping preferences. Further, the service provider can alter the content of the accessed Web site to
So, why are people so
According to Microsoft, "A cookie is a very tiny piece of text we're asking permission to place on your computer's hard drive. If you agree, then your browser adds the text in a small file. Its purpose is to let us know when you visit microsoft.com. This text, by itself, only tells us that a previous microsoft.com visitor has returned. It doesn't tell us who you are, or your email address or anything else personal. If you want to give us that information later, that's your choice.
So why do we offer cookies? Cookies help us evaluate
That having been said, consider the concept of a "third party cookie," also known as a DoubleClick cookie, after DoubleClick Inc. (www.doubleclick.net, but don't touch that website unless you want to run the risk of
The file (usually in your browser's directory structure) where cookies are kept. The file name is cookie.txt, just in case you'd like to delete it. See Cookie.
A kind of corporate slush fund used to doctor quarterly earnings
When I was growing up, things that were fun were "hot" or "groovy." Now they're "cool," which means they're in fashion. I first
Mainframe and intelligent workstations dividing application code between them.
A made-up word which means that you partner with your competition. In short, the word is a blending of cooperation and competition. You might be a wholesaler of PCS services who is now partnering with one of your retailers to create a new service which might compete with you, at some point. That's coopetition. Joe Nacchio, head of Qwest, uses the term to describe the love/hate relationship of telecom carriers who
"Thank you for all your coordinates." A cool way of saying "Thank you for your address, phone and fax numbers and email addresses." The origin of the noun is in geometry. George Crabb in 1823 defined co-ordinates as "a term applied to the absciss and ordinates when taken in connexion," later better known as the
Cable Organizer Panel. A place to organize cables in a rack-mounted telecom system.
Compound resulting from the polymerization of two different monomers.
CDDI. CDDI is an FDDI technology that is
Bob Metcalfe of InfoWorld Magazine coined coppertone for bare copper wire which you can rent from your local phone company. By "bare" he means that the copper you rent will contain no electronics on it
The story goes that Metcalfe got his inspiration for the term coppertone because of the old Coppertone suntan oil advertisements, picturing a dog partially pulling down a child's bathing suit and exposing (hence, the term "bare") the pale butt of an otherwise very tan child. They had billboards of this all over Southern California for years.
An additional processor which takes care of specific
Common Open Policy Service. A standard under consideration by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) for exchanging policy information in order to support dynamic QoS (Quality of Service) in an IP (Internet Protocol) network. Such policy information is exchanged between PDPs (Policy Decision Points) and PEPs (Policy Enforcement Points). The PDPs generally are in the form of network-based servers that decide which types of traffic (e.g., voice and video) are afforded priority treatment. The PEPs are in the form of routers or IP switches that implement the decisions made by the PDPs. COPS-PR is a derivative used for device provisioning. COPS currently is intended to work in conjunction with RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol), but may well take
Customer Owned Premises Wire. You own the telephone wiring in your office.
A nice new telephone system programming feature. We found it on Northern Telecom's Norstar phone. With this button, certain programmed settings can be copied from one line to another, or from one telephone to another. Line programmable settings that can be copied on the Norstar are Line Data, Restrictions, Overrides, and Night Service. Telephone settings that can be
A copyright protects the original author of a story, software program, song, movie, piece of sculpture, or other original work from direct copying. Copying may be inferred where the alleged copyist had access to the
Functionality that provides the capability to deny certain call attempts based on the incoming and outgoing class of restrictions provisioned on the dial peers. This functionality provides flexibility in network design, allows users to block calls (for example, to 900 numbers), and applies different restrictions to call attempts from different originators. COR specifies which incoming dial peer can use which outgoing dial peer to make a call.
Common Object Request Broker Architecture. An ORB (Object Request Broker) standard developed by the OMG (Object Management Group). CORBA provides for standard object-oriented interfaces between ORBs, as well as to external applications and application platforms. The yield is that of interoperability of object-oriented software systems residing on disparate platforms. Additionally, CORBA provides for portability of such systems across platforms. See also Object Request Broker and OMG.
A small, flexible
The Cibernet On-Line Roaming Database. CORD is an on-line database that acts as a repository for information that wireless carriers need to exchange in order to support roaming in their
The earliest manual PBX. Usually an elegant wooden device consisting of lots of cords with plugs on them. These cords sat horizontally
A switchboard circuit, terminated in two plug-ended cords, used to establish connections manually between user lines or between trunks and user lines. A number of cord circuits are furnished as part of the manual switchboard position equipment. The cords may be referred to as front cord and rear cord or trunk cord and station cord. In modern cordless
The lamp associated with a cord circuit that indicates supervisory conditions for the respective part of the connection. See Cord Board.
A switching system consisting of positions at which trunk-to- trunk and line-to-trunk connections are established by operators using cords and plugs. In other words, the calls are connected by taking the caller's phone line and plugging it into the phone line of the person he wants to reach, or the next operator along the way. Such switching systems were called cordboards. They were useful because of the enormous level of service they provided phone users. The operators were often delightful. Cordboards, however, are very slow, and very labor intensive. Someone once estimated that, if they hadn't invented automatic people-less switching systems, everybody in the world would have needed to become a telephone switchboard operator.
See Cord Board.
A telephone switchboard in which manually operated keys are used to make connections. See Cord Board.
A telephone with no cord between handset and base. Each piece contains a radio transmitter, receiver, and antenna. The handset contains a
CT-2. CT-2 is a European-designed, low-cost telephone system that is based on TDMA technology. The network operates with small, light, and inexpensive handsets. The CT-2 system consists of microcells that are several hundred yards wide. The service is designed to
CT-2+. CT-2+ is an expansion of the CT-2 interface specification that would extend network capabilities and allow backward compatibility with CT-2 handsets.
The central glass element of a fiber optic cable through which the light is transmitted (typically 8-12 microns in diameter for single mode fiber and 50-100 microns in diameter for
Council Of REgistrars. An organization proposed to be charged with the responsibility for establishing and maintaining a new set of gTLDs (generic Top Level Domains) for the Internet. Effective March 1998, those gTLDs were to comprise the following: .arts (enti- ties emphasizing cultural and entertainment activities); .firm (businesses, or firms); .
The administration of the new gTLDs was contracted by CORE to Emergent Corporation, which was to develop, maintain, and
A public class (or interface) that is a standard member of the Java Platform. The intent is that the Java core classes, at minimum, are available on all operating systems where the Java Platform runs. A 100% pure Java program relies only on core classes, meaning it can run anywhere. All core classes reside in the Java Package.
The primary routers in the Internet. Historically, one of a set of gateways (routers) operated by the Internet Network Operations Center at BBN. The core gateway system formed a central part of Internet routing in that all groups would advertise paths to their networks from a core gateway, using the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP).
A combination of high-capacity switches and transmission facilities which form the backbone of a carrier network. End users gain access to the core of the network from the Edge Network.
The percent that the shape of the core's cross section deviates from a circle. Sometimes referred to as core ovality.
CPU. The card or shelf that controls the system or part of the system. It's called the CPU because all the RAM, subprocessors, buffers, clocking circuitry and ROM are included in this part of the system.
In a packet-switched star topology, a router that is part of the backbone and that serves as the single pipe through which all traffic from peripheral networks must pass on its way to other peripheral networks.
Primary description of a fiber. Stated in microns. Does not include cladding. Determines end surface area which accepts and transmits light.
A Broadband Switching System (BSS) which is located in the core of the network. Conceptually equivalent to a Tandem Office in the voice world, a core switch serves to interconnect "Edge Switches," which provide user access to the broadband network much as do Central Offices in the circuit switched voice world.
A wall that runs between structural floor and structural ceiling to separate stairwells, elevators, etc. from the rest of the building.
A visually noisy, overdesigned Photoshopped mess. "We've got to redesign that page, it's become total cornea gumbo."
A device, normally consisting of three metallic surfaces or screens
In radar interpretation, an object that, by means of multiple reflections from smooth surfaces, produces a radar return of greater magnitude than might be expected from the physical size of the object.
A reflected electromagnetic wave to its point of origin. Such reflectors are often used as radar targets.
Passive optical mirror, that consists of three
A reflector consisting of two mutually intersecting conducting flat surfaces.
A Siemens protocol for PBX-to-PBX signaling over a Primary Rate connection.
This is how Opuswave defines the term on its web page: "Corporate GSM seamlessly integrates public wireless (GSM), enterprise voice (PBX) and enterprise data (LAN) communications networks and integrates fully with the legacy infrastructure of the enterprise."
Also called an internetwork or a wide area network. A network of networks (the mother of all networks) that connects most or all of a corporation's voice, data, and video resources using various methods, including the phone system, LANs, private data networks, leased telecommunications lines, and public data networks. Connections between networks are made with bridges and routers.
Corporate networks come in many
The AMA (Automatic Message Accounting) function that permits the association of AMA data generated at the same network system or at physically separate network systems. There are three levels of correlation that affect Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1: record level, service level, and customer level. Definition from Bellcore in reference to Advanced Intelligent Network.
Peer entities with a lower layer connection among them.
A term that Bell
The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction.
See Class of Service.
Compatible for Open Systems.
Corporation for Open Systems international. A Federal Government blessed organization which aims towards standardizing OSI and ISDN. COS members include everyone from end-users to manufacturers. COS deals with private and public networking issues.
Cooperation for Open Systems Interconnection Networking in Europe. A program sponsored by the European Commission aimed at using OSI to tie together European research networks.
Atomic nuclei (mostly protons) and electrons that are observed to strike the Earth's atmosphere with exceedingly high energy.
Consortium for School Networking A non-profit organization that promotes the use of telecommunications in Kindergarten to 12th grade education to improve learning. Members represent state and local education agencies, as well as hardware and software vendors, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and interested individuals. www.cosn.org.
Identifies class of service SNA.
The price of each element of telecommunications service and/or equipment that comprises a configuration.
A procedure, rationale or methodology for pricing services
A call center term. Basic unit of resource measurement. Total costs (fixed, variable and semi-variable) divided by the number of workstation call hours that are
Continuity Check Message. The second of the ISUP call set-up messages. Indicates success or failure of continuity check if one is needed. See ISUP and Common Channel Signaling.
Central Office Terminal or Termination. The termination of a local loop facility at the central office. See Digital Loop Carrier.
Customer Originated Trace. A CLASS (Custom Local Area Signaling Services) feature that allows the customer (e.g., you) to originate a trace to track harassing callers. When you get a nuisance call, you depress the switchhook and release it quickly. Then you listen for a special stuttered dial tone. You then depress *57 on your touchtone dial pad, or dial 1157 on your
Plant which has an assumed retirement dependent upon the retirement of some other item of equipment or building, etc. A telephone company term.
COnnection Transport Service.
Commercial Off The Shelf.
A couch potato who insists on taking charge of what he and the rest of the couch potatoes are watching on the TV.
A person who spends their life sitting on a couch surfing TV channels with a remote control TV device. See Mouse Potato.
The quantity of electricity transferred by a current of one ampere in one second. One unit of quantity in measuring electricity.
CORE. An organization charged with the responsibility for development, implementation, and maintenance of a set of new Top Level Domains (TLDs) for the Internet. See CORE for a longer explanation.
An arrangement whereby two signal paths, one in each direction, exist in a ring topology.
An arrangement whereby two signal paths, one in each direction, exist in a ring topology. See Counter Rotating Ring.
An arrangement whereby two signal paths, the directions of which are opposite, exist in a physical ring topology. Such rings typically are described as "Dual Counter Rotating Rings," such as described in SONET and FDDI standards. In such a physical configuration, one or more transmission paths operate in a clockwise manner, while one or more other paths operate counter-clockwise, or anti-clockwise. Should the primary path suffer catastrophic failure, the secondary path comes on line. It does this to ensure virtually uninterrupted communications. See also FDDI and SONET.
A system of electrical conductors used to complete the antenna system in place of the usual ground connection.
The one, two or three digit number that, in the world numbering plan, identifies each country or integrated numbering plan in the world. In short, the one, two or three digits that precede the national number in an international phone call. This code is assigned in and taken from Recommendation E.163 (Numbering Plan for International Service) adopted by the ITU-T. There's a list of country codes and key country area codes in the Appendix at the back of this book. See also www.the-acr.com and www.sprint.com/ssi/intl_codes.html.
In international record carrier transmissions, the country code is a two or three alpha or numeric abbreviation of the country name following the geographical place name.
A two-character alphabetic code suffixed to a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) for use in communications over the Internet and WWW (World Wide Web). The country code is a portion of the Top Level Domain (TLD), and is used when the domain of the target country
For the purposes of the FCC's cable television rules, this term includes:
Borough (in Alaska).
District (in District of Columbia).
Independent City (in Alaska, Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia).
Municipio (in Puerto Rico).
Parish (in Louisiana).
In fiber optics, a condition wherein energy is transferred among modes. The energy share of each mode does not
In microwave transmission, a condition where energy is transferred from the fundamental mode to higher order modes. Energy transferred to coupled modes is undesirable in usual microwave transmission in a waveguide. The frequency is kept low enough so that propagation in the
An optical device that combines or
Any means by which energy is transferred from one conductive or dielectric medium (e.g., optical waveguide) to another, including fortuitous occurrences. Types of electrical coupling include capacitive (electrostatic) coupling, inductive coupling, and conductive (hard wire) coupling. Coupling may occur between optical fibers unless specific action is taken to prevent it. Coupling between fibers is very effectively prevented by the polymer overcoat, which also prevents the propagation of cladding modes, and provides some degree of physical protection. See also Inductive Coupling.
The power loss suffered when coupling light from one optical device to another.
From Britain: A tear-off slip to
A dumb French word for email. The word came because the French government, in its infinite wisdom, did not like the use of email, which it regarded as a bad American word.
A combination of Web pages, E-mail, threaded discussions, chat rooms, listservs and distance learning tools used to provide online educational services or supplement regular classroom instruction.
Control Over Voice. Mitel's proprietary signaling protocol which they use between their PBX and their proprietary analog phones.
The first page of a fax message. It generally includes a header, typically the sender company's logo; the recipient's name and fax telephone number; the sender's fax and voice telephone numbers; the system's date and time; a message; a footer.
The percent of completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface.
The geographic area served by a cellular system; that is, the area in which service is available to users of the system. Once the mobile telephone number has traveled outside the coverage area, the mobile telephone will show "NO SERVICE."
Cellsite On Wheels. A COW is trailer used to house transmitting/receiving equipment. A COW can be temporary, providing cell phone service during network expansions, emergencies and short duration events. When replacing an existing cellsite, the COW processes traffic while the permanent cellsite is changed out. In the case of a change out or upgrade, the COW will use existing components, such as antennas, batteries, network facilities whenever possible. Some components may be re-engineered and expanded. Antennas may require duplexers, power may have to be reconfigured, batteries may have to be upgraded, additional network facilities may be arranged. In the event, the COW is used at a "new" site or for a special event, network access, power, generators, remote testing and repair are arranged and a temporary tower may be placed until a permanent tower can be erected. The use of the COW may or may not require a cellular system redesign depending on the application. Since the COW can be used for omni or single-directional applications, each deployment of the COW will require a review of the RF Plan for the given area. COWs come with climate control and can be configured in any manner, depending on the physical restrictions of the trailer. The COW is especially useful to get service in place while the permanent network is being built because COWs can roll through a network from site to site as the Project demands. Since the COW contains the same network equipment as a permanent cellsite, it can be removed from the COW and installed in a permanent building if that is part of the network plan.
Character-Oriented Windows Interface. An SAA-compatible user interface for OS/2 applications.
Cowboy Coding or Cowboy Software and means shooting from the hip and not really planning how you go about a particular process.
India is the only country in the world that has a Bill of Rights for Cows.
See Control Point.
Control Program for Microcomputers. An erstwhile popular operating system for primarily 8-bit microcomputer systems based on the family of Intel 8080 family of microprocessor chips. The CP/M system was originally written by Gary Kidall a programmer and consultant who later formed a company called Intergalatic Digital Research (later just Digital Research). Sadly, that company never upgraded CP/M to 16-bit machines. Thus it left the way open for Bill Gates and the company he formed, Microsoft, to create MS-DOS, which, in its initial form, bore a
Cost Per Action. Consider an advertisement on a Web site. There are basically four ways you can pay for such an ad.
You can pay a flat monthly fee for it.
You can pay a cost per viewer, per eyeball.
You can pay a cost per click.
You can pay a "cost per action." You pay if someone seeing your ad actually does something. CPA pricing can range from registration forms filled out, contests entered, questionnaires
See Calling Party Control.
Calling Party Connected.
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity. A CPCN is required from the FCC (47 U.S.C. S 214(e)(2)) for the "construction, extension, acquisition, operation, or discontinuance, reduction, or
An ATM term. Common Part Convergence Sublayer: The portion of the convergence sublayer of an AAL that remains the same regardless of the traffic type.
An ATM term. Common Part Convergence Sublayer-Service Data Unit: Protocol data unit to be delivered to the receiving AAL layer by the destination CP convergence sublayer.
Customer Provided Equipment, or Customer Premises Equipment. Originally it referred to equipment on the customer's premises which had been bought from a vendor who was not the local phone company. Now it simply refers to telephone equipment ” key systems, PBXs, answering machines, etc. ” which reside on the customer's premises. "Premises" might be anything from an office to a factory to a home. GTE once used CPE to refer to "Company Provided Equipment." It doesn't any longer. What the Americans call CPE, the Europeans now call CTE, which stands for Connected Telecommunications Equipment. See CTE Directive.
Computer to PBX Interface. This proprietary hardware/software interface provides direct connectivity between a PBX's switching network and a host computer to allow switched access between the host computer and data terminal equipment connected with the PBX. The interface is based on the North American Standard T-Carrier specification (24 multiplexed 64 Kbps channels operating at a combined speed of 1.544 Mbps). Developed by Northern Telecom, Inc. this interface uses in-band signaling and provides bidirectional data transmission at speeds up to 56 Kbps synchronous per channel. See Open Application Interface.
Cost Per Inquiry. The total advertising cost divided by the number of inquiries received. Used for analyzing the efficiency of a medium or vehicle.
IBM SAA Common Programming Interface-Communication between SNA and OSI environments.
Short for Carrier Pigeon Internet Protocol. Using birds to send datagrams from one network node to another, where they are scanned and sent on
Call Processing Language. Based on XML (Extended Markup Language), CPL is used to describe and control Internet telephony services. Currently in development within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), CPL is unique insofar as it is
Complex Programmable Logic Device. Also known as Complex Programmable Gate Array (CPGA). A user-configurable logic device very similar to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The difference is that the basic logic cells are more complex and structured than those used in FPGAs; the logic
Customer Premise Management.
Critical Path Method. See also CP/M.
Cable Plant Management. See Cable Management.
See Continuous Phase Modulation.
Cost Per Thousand. A way of comparing the price of advertising. Assume your ad is running for a month on Lycos' home page, how much will the CPM be? It will be the price of the ad divided by the number of people visiting that site for a month. For example, let's say that the ad cost $200,000 and was visited by 10,000 people. That means that the cost per thousand (the CPM) is $20.
Computer PBX Network.
Customer premises network.
Calling Party Number. See Calling Party Number.
Customer Proprietary Network Information. Information which is available to a telephone company by virtue of the telephone company's basic service customer relationship. This information may include the quantity, location, type and amount of use of local telephone service subscribed to, and information contained on telephone company bills. This is the definition of CPNI that the independent voice mail and live telephone answering industry uses.
Compression Priority Demand Assignment. Another protocol for converting voice into data bits. See also PCM.
Calling Party Pays. A billing option that changes the billing of
Continuing Property Record. Assigned by Telcordia to provide a methodology for property record number assignment for retirement units and less than retirement units. These record numbers are used by telephone service providers to maintain detailed records of telephone equipment assets throughout the lifecycle of the equipment usage. CPR numbers classify equipment into hardwired, deferrable plug-in, non-deferrable plug-in, capital tool and portable test set, minor item, and expense item. See also CLEI Code.
Characters per second, or cycles per second. In asynchronous communications, there are typically 10 bits per character ” 8 bits for the character and one stop and one start bit.
Customer Premises Satellite Interface. The interface between a satellite, a satellite receiver on the premises, and a user computer network, the CPSI is
See Central Processing Unit.
Call Pickup Group. All the phones in an area that can be answered by each other by simply
Carriage Return. The key on a computer called Carriage Return or sometimes "ENTER." Touching this key usually signals the computer that the entry has been completed and is now ready for processing by the computer. See Carriage Return.
Critical (alarm status). Indicates a failure
Call Register. It is a place in memory in a telephone switch that dialed digits are stored when placing a call.
Constraint-based Routed Label Distribution Protocol. An alternative to RSVP (Resource ReSerVation Protocol) in MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching) networks. RSVP, which works at the IP (Internet Protocol) level, uses IP or UDP datagrams to communicate between LSR (Label Switched Routing) peers. RSVP does not require the maintenance of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) sessions, although RSVP must assume responsibility for error control. CR-LDP is designed to facilitate the routing of LSPs (Label Switched Paths) through TCP sessions between LSR peers through the communication of label distribution messages during the session. See also MPLS.
ewUsers of Research In Motion's Blackberry.
A person who "cracks" computer and telephone systems by gaining access to passwords, or by "cracking" the copy protection of computer software. A cracker usually does illegal acts. A Cracker is a "Hacker" whose hacks are beyond the bounds of propriety, and usually beyond the law. The term "cracker" is said to derive from the word "safe- cracker." See also Hacker, Phreak, Script Kiddies, and Sneaker.
Cooperative Research Action For Technology.
Craft. Nonmanagement telephone company staff. Many craft employees are members of the Communications Workers of America (CWA) or the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW)...at least they used to be.
A PCS wireless term. A craft terminal is a device built specifically to provide a man-machine interface that is otherwise not available. The interface is customized to provide a view into a particular device's operation such as a proprietary switch or BSS, which is a Base Station Sub-system charged with managing radio frequency resources and radio frequency transmission for a group of BTSs, which is a Base Transceiver Station, used to transmit radio frequency over the air.
Also called Goat or Butt-Set. Portable telephone used to test analog phone lines.
In the phone industry, a craftsperson has two distinct meanings. First, it is the person who toils to install phones, repair outside plant and fix problems inside central offices. This person typically carries tools and dresses in
A practice in which customers are billed for unexpected and unathorized telephone charges or telephone services, which the companies didn't order, authorize or use. "Cramming" refers to the fact that the charges are crammed onto the telephone bill in an inconspicuous place in order that such charges will go unnoticed by the customer. Most of us poor, dumb customers don't bother to check our telephone bills, and quickly write a check for the total. We really don't examine phone bills in great detail since most of them are incomprehensible. Cramming is a practice of only the most unethical and desperate phone companies, i.e. most of them. (That's a tasteless joke.)
An ATM term. A mechanism for partially releasing a connection setup in progress which has
A poorly written or totally useless Java applet. "I just
A crash is the complete failure of a hardware device or a software operation. The term usually is used to mean a "fatal" crash in which the device or software must be started from a "power up" condition. The crash of a Windows machine often is accompanied by a blank blue screen known lovingly as the "blue screen of death." A Macintosh crash is accompanied by a blank screen with a small text box that contains a graphic of a bomb with a lit fuse. See also Boot.
Cryptograhic Radio TeleType equipment. See also Five By Five.
The minute cracks that can be found on the suffice of plastic materials such as cable insulation.
Cyclic Redundancy Check. A process used to check the integrity of a block of data. A CRC character is generated at the transmission end. Its value depends on the hexadecimal value of the number of ones in the data block. The transmitting device calculates the value and appends it to the data block. The receiving end makes a similar calculation and
A character used to check the integrity of a block of data. The character is generated at the transmission end. Its value depends on the hexadecimal value of the number of ones in the data block. And it is added to the data block. The receiving end makes a similar calculation and compares its results with the added character. If there's a difference, there's been a mistake in transmission. So, please, re-send the data.
Contention Resolution Device.
Selecting only the most profitable markets or services to sell into. Choosing the cream of the market. An erstwhile popular economic theory to deny new entrants into the telephone industry.
A way of establishing, via a trusted third party, that you are who you claim to be.
Conduit, Risers, Equipment space, Ducts and FACilitieS. Collective term for
A pay telephone that accepts credit cards with magnetic
People use the term "credit crunch" to describe any situation in which banks seem to be unwilling to lend to businesses, consumers, or both. A true credit crunch, however, is a sudden disruption in which the credit markets stop working.
The term dates from a specific economic episode in 1966. Back then, Depression-era government rules (notably the Federal Reserve's Regulation Q) capped the interest rates that banks could pay on most deposits. In 1966, rates on short-term securities zoomed higher than the federal cap, and banks suffered sudden, massive withdrawals as depositors shifted funds from savings accounts into money-market securities. Banks were forced to liquidate assets at distress prices to meet the outflow, and
Corporation for Research and Educational Networking. An organization formed in October 1989, when Bitnet and CSNET were combined. CSNET is no longer around, but CREN still operates Bitnet.
The crest factor is the ratio of the crest (peak, maximum) value of a current to the root-mean-square (RMS) value. A square wave of current has a crest factor of 1. A sine wave has a crest factor of 1.414. The current drawn by a typical computer power supply when
Custom Toll Restriction.
An ATM term. Cell Relay Function: This is the basic function that an ATM network performs in order to provide a cell relay service to ATM end-stations.
An ATM term. Connection Related Function: A term used by Traffic Management to reference a point in a network or a network element where per connection functions are occurring. This is the point where policing at the VCC or VPC level may occur.
These are the part of the crimp tool that actually come in contact with the connector that is being crimped. They slide into the jaws of the crimp tool. Crimp dies are interchangeable and many types are available. See Crimp Tool.
Crimp tools form connectors onto cables. They are used for BNC, F-Type and RJ-11, RJ-45 connectors, among others. They have a
Cryptography & Information Security Research Laboratory.
Customer Record Information System. A data format used by some LECs for billing end user customers.
See Customer Record Information System.
The smallest angle at which a ray will be totally reflected within a fiber.
An unstable stage in a software project's life when any single change or bug fix can result in two or more new bugs. Continued development at this stage leads to an exponential increase in the number of
That part of the total technical power load required for synchronous communications and automatic switching equipment.
An ATM term. Cell Rate Margin: This is a measure of the difference between the effective bandwidth allocation and the allocation for sustainable rate in cells per second.
Customer Relationship Management. A fancy name for putting software, hardware and networking in place that
Complete with Related Order. FID used on service orders identifying two or more orders that are dependent upon each other for proper completion. Orders must be completed together.
In ancient Rome, it was considered a sign of leadership to be born with a crooked nose. There's hope for us all.
An assembler that can run symbolic-language on one type of computer and produce machine-language output for another type of computer.
Netscape had the biggest
A compiler that runs on one computer but produces object code for a different type of computer. In short, a cross compiler generates code for a different environment than where it is run. Cross compilers are used to generate software that can run on computers with a new architecture or on special-purpose devices that cannot host their own compilers. Cross-compiler: For example, normally a compiler that runs on a Motorola 68020 will generate code that runs on a Motorola 68020. A
Cross connect can be written with or without a dash, i.e. cross connect or cross-connect. I've read 15 definitions of cross-connect. They're all awful. Let's try to do better. Let's imagine you have an office that you need to wire up for voice and data. So you wire every desk with a bunch of wires. You punch one end of the wires into various plugs at the desk. You punch the other onto some form of punchdown block, for example a 66-block. That punchdown block may be in a closet on the same floor or it may be down in the
Distribution system equipment used to terminate and administer communication circuits. In a wire cross connect,
Wire terminations grouped to provide cross connect capability. The groups are identified by color-coded sections of backboards mounted on the wall in equipment rooms, riser closets, or satellite closets, or by designation strips placed on the wiring block or unit. The color coding identifies the type of circuit that terminates at the field.
See Cross Connect.
The coupling of a signal from one channel, circuit, or conductor to another, where it becomes an
When you make an REJ-11 extension cable, the wiring crosses over. Conductor 1 becomes 4. Conductor 2 becomes 3. Conductor 3 becomes 2. And conductor 4 becomes one. Next time you have an REJ-11 extension cable in your hand, hold the REJ-11s next to each other and compare them. You'll notice the cross-over of the conductors.
The amount of modulation impressed on an unmodulated carrier when a signal is simultaneously applied to the RF port of a mixer under specified operating conditions. The tendency of a mixer to produce cross modulation is decreased with an increase in conversion compression point and intercept point.
See Crossover Cable.
A fiber nonlinearity caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of glass. The index of refraction varies with optical power level which causes different optical signals to interact.
See Crossover Cable.
The conversion of ten-digit telephone numbers to seven digits, or vice versa.
The relationship between two radio waves where one is polarized vertically and the other horizontally.
You buy a shirt from me. I sell you a tie. You buy a car from me. I sell you a mobile phone for your car. There is another term. It's called "up selling." That's when I sell you a more expensive shirt or a more expensive car.
Supporting one area of a business from
Method for describing frequency distributions of two variables simultaneously.
A cable used at the host system, or network interface equipment that changes pin/signal assignment in order to conform to a given wiring standard (USOC, AT&T PDS, DEC MMJ, etc).
See Cross Connect.
Non-permanent wire connections that run between terminals of a cross-connect field. See Cross Connect.
Xbar. A switching system that uses a
A 2-wire common-control switching system with a space-division network used as local tandem, toll tandem, and CAMA switching. While originally designed to switch trunks, some systems have been locally modified to accept loop-start or ground-start lines.
Configuration that allows two DTE devices or two DCE devices to communicate. See also Crossover Cable.
An X.25 link connecting two XTX NCs on the same level.
Another word for a null modem cable or a cross-pinned cable. Such a cable is a RS-232 cable that enables two DTE devices or two DCE devices to be connected through serial ports and transmit and receive information across the cable. The sending wire on one end is joined to the receiving wire on the other. In an RS-232 cable, this typically means that conductors 2 and 3 are reversed. See RS-232-C.
See Crossover Cable.
A single element in an array of elements that comprise a switch. It is a set of physical or logical contacts that operate together to extend the speech and signal channels in a switching network.
The use of two transmitters operating on the same frequency, with one transmitter-receiver pair being vertically polarized and the other pair horizontally polarized (orthogonal polarization).
Crossposting is putting one copy of an electronic file up on the Internet in such a way that it can be viewed from any of several newsgroups (discussion areas). Today's Internet software lets readers avoid seeing a widely crossposted article more than once. They see it in the first group they find it. Crossposting is frowned upon in the Internet when it becomes excessive and off-topic. Crossposting is a less serious offense than spamming, which is seriously frowned upon. See
Crosstalk occurs when you can hear someone you did not call talking on your telephone line to another person you did not call. You may also only hear half the other conversation. Just one person speaking. There are several technical causes for crosstalk. They relate to wire placement, shielding and transmission techniques. CROSSTALK is also the name of a once popular telecommunications software program for 8- and 16-bit microcomputers.
The extent to which a communications system resists crosstalk.
Cabling Reference Panel (of the Australian Communications Industry Forum).
Customer Routing Point. AT&T's terminology for third-party processors that accept routing requests from the CCSS7 network. Within the ICM, the Network Interface Controller (NIC) acts as a CRP.
An ATM term. Cell Relay Service: A carrier service which supports the receipt and transmission of ATM cells between end users in compliance with ATM standards and implementation specifications.
Cathode Ray Tube. The glass display device found in television sets and video computer terminals. See Cathode Ray Tube.
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. The Canadian equivalent of the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) in the US. The CRTC has its origins in the Royal Commission on Broadcasting (1928). In 1906,
The steps and operations performed in converting encrypted messages into plain text without initial knowledge of the key employed in the encryption.
The study of encrypted
A term used to describe encrypted information. The use of encryption on data communications circuits lessens the chance that the information will be successfully copied by eavesdroppers.
A complete system of crypto-communications between two or more holders. The basic unit for naval cryptographic communication. It includes:
the cryptographic aids prescribed;
the holders thereof;
the indicators or other means of identification;
the area or areas in which effective;
the special purpose, if any, for which provided; and
pertinent notes as to distribution, usage, etc. A cryptochannel is analogous to a radio circuit.
The process of concealing the contents of a message from all except those who know the key. Cryptography is unregulated in the United States. See Clipper Chip.
A piece of natural quartz or similar material that has been ground to the proper specification which determines the operating frequency of the quartz.
A microphone, the diaphragm of which is attached to a piezo-electric crystal, which generates electrical currents when torque is applied, due to the
Convergence Sublayer. The upper portion of BISDN Layer 3. As an ATM term, it covers the general procedures and functions that convert between ATM and non-ATM formats. It describes the functions of the upper half of the AAL layer. It is also used to describe the conversion functions between non-ATM protocols such as Frame Relay or SMDS and ATM protocols above the AAL layer. The exact functions of the CS are dictated by the particular AAL (1, 2, 3/4, or 5) in support of the specific Service Class (A, B, C, or D). SEE AAL.
Capability Sets. CSs. Stages of implementation of the Intelligent Network architecture (as proposed by the ITU and the ETSI). Each stage (CS) is actually an incremental subset of the full IN (Intelligent Network) architecture.
Capability Set 1. Term used by ITU-T to refer to their initial set of Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) standards. Contains 18 trigger detection points. Bellcore (Bell Communications Research) plans to adopt the CS-1 terminology for its own AIN.
Conjugate Structure-Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction. Standardized by the ITU-T as G.729, CS-ACELP is used for voice compression at rates of 8 Kbps. VoFR (Voice over Frame Relay) and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) both make use of CSACELP, among other compression options. See also ACELP, CELP and LD-CELP.
Circuit Switched-Cellular Digital Packet Data. A variation on the CDPD theme. Developed in July 1995, the expanded specification provides for packet radio transmission on a circuit-switched basis over the analog AMPS cellular network. See also CDPD.
CallPath Services Architecture. IBM's computer host to PBX interface. It links computer and telephone systems. See Callpath Services Architecture for detail. See also Callbridge and Open Application Interface.
Canadian Standards Association. A non-profit, independent organization which operates a listing service for electrical and electronic materials and equipment. It is the body that establishes telephone equipment (and other) standards for use in Canada. At least in part, CSA is the Canadian
Carrier Serving Area. A concept which categorizes local loops by length, gauge and subscriber distribution in order to determine how a specific geographic area can best be served. The concept is critical when LECs evaluate the potential for deployment of services which challenge the capabilities of the embedded voice-grade, twisted-pair cable plant. Such services include xDSL, e.g., ADSL and IDSL.
Canadian guidelines for Grounding and Bonding for Telecommunications in Commercial Buildings.
Canadian Design Guidelines for Administration of Telecommunications Infrastructure in Commercial Buildings.
Canadian Design Guidelines for Telecommunications Wiring Systems in Commercial Buildings.
Canadian Building Facilities Design Guidelines for Telecommunications CEC Canadian Electrical Code, Part I - 1994.
Canadian equivalent of EIA-569 standard. Also has Rcv Clock, and both Xmit Clocks for synchronous systems.
Customer Service Center.
Customer Service Consultant.
Customer Service Coordinator.
Customer Support Center.
Customer Support Consultant.
Circuit Switched Cellular Data. A developing alternative to CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) for transmitting data over analog AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) networks. The problems with CDPD are that it is optimized for short messages (smaller than 1KB), it is expensive (approximately $.10 per KB), and it is not
Circuit Switched Digital Capability. AT&T defines it as a technique for making endto-end digital connections. Customers can place telephone calls normally, then use the same private connection to transmit high-speed data. CSDC is a circuit-switched, 56 Kbps, full-duplex data service that provides high-speed data communications over regular telephone lines.
IBM Communications Subsystem For Interconnection: networking software.
Called Subscriber Identification. This is an identifier whose coding format contains a number, usually a phone number from the remote terminal used in fax.
Capability Set I. A set of service-independent building blocks for the creation of IN services developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and the ITU-T.
ComputoService Inc./National Independent Billing.
Calling Station ID. When you receive a fax from someone, you'll see on the top of the page the phone number of the fax machine that sent the fax to you. That's called the Calling Station ID. Most people think that that number is the phone number from which they're receiving the fax. In fact, it's not. It's the number you enter yourself into your fax machine when you first set it up. You could happily put in a completely different phone number to the number you're sending from. And no one would be any the wiser.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access. In local area networking, CSMA is a way of getting onto the LAN. Before starting to transmit, personal computers on the LAN "listen" to make sure no other PC is transmitting. Once the PC figures out that no other PC is transmitting, it sends a packet and then frees the line for other PCs to transmit. With CSMA, though stations do not transmit until the medium is clear, collisions still occur. Two alternative versions (CSMA/CA and CSMA/CD) attempt to reduce both the number of collisions and the severity of their impact. See CSMA/CA and CSMA/CD.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. A MAC (Media Access Control) protocol designed to avoid the potential for data collisions between devices sharing a transmission medium, e.g. a local area network. There are several
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. A MAC (Medium Access Control) technique used in Ethernet LANs. CSMA/CD requires that all devices attached to the network listen for transmissions in progress (i.e., sense the carrier frequency) before starting to transmit (multiple access). If two or more begin transmitting at the same time and their transmissions crash into each other, a data collision occurs. All stations that sense the collision (i.e., collision detection) transmit a collision notification over a sub-carrier frequency, which all stations likewise monitor. The stations that were transmitting during this time backs off, and calculates a random number of milliseconds before again attempting to transmit.
If you didn't understand the above definition, try this one: CSMA/CD: Abbreviation for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, a method of having multiple workstations access a single transmission medium (multiple access) by listening until no signals are
Centralized Station Message Detail Recording.
Call Screening, Monitoring and Intercept.
Central Services Organization. An Internet service that makes it easy to find user names and addresses.
Corporate Security Officer.
Competitive Service Provider. A general term for all companies competing to deliver telecommunications service to companies and individuals. The term includes the RBOCs, the CLECs, the IXCs and the ILECs.
Certified Service Provider. Initially developed for the automotive industry, a CSP is an ISP which has met the mission requirements of performance, reliability, security, and manageability for the big three auto manufacturers and their trading
Commerce Service Provider. Service providers that build and host e-commerce Web sites. CSPs relieve
See Carriage Service Provider.
Circuit-Switched Public Data Networks.
Customer/Supplier Quality Process is a program designed to help suppliers improve the quality of their products and services and strengthen customer relationships. I first heard about CSQP from Newbridge Networks, which told me that it had been nominated for the program by several regional Bell operating companies because of the volume of products it was selling to these customers. These RBOCs
Customer Station Rearrangement (as in Centrex).
Customer Service Representative. A customer care agent that provides direct customer support.
Customer Service Record. Computer printout that details the fixed monthly charges billed by your local telephone company. The CSR is composed of computer codes called USOCs, which in turn
Cell Switch Router. A technology which is proposed in the form of an IETF submission to fill gaps in ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) standards. The objective of CSR is to provide a standard means of building enterprise backbones or carrier-level
Cascading Style Sheets. See Cascading Style Sheets.
Capability Sets. Stages of implementation of the Intelligent Network architecture (as proposed by the ITU and the ETSI). Each stage (CS) is actually an incremental subset of the full IN (Intelligent Network) architecture.
Cellular Subscriber Station. A cellular phone.
Computer Supported Telephony, a term coined by Siemens. Here is an explanation from Dr. Peter Pawlita of Siemens. "More people communicate by telephone than by any other means. The reason is simple: The telephone bridges any distance, saves travel time and can be used spontaneously and is universally available. Unfortunately telephone usage is often associated with annoying delays and frayed nerves resulting from such things as time wasted in finding a number, dialing errors, and the absence of the dialed party. Added to this the person to whom you are speaking does not have the knowledge you require, or has to
Computer Supported Telephony Application. A standard from the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) for linking computers to telephone systems. Basic CSTA is a set of API calls agreed upon by the ECMA. See also CST and Open Application Interface.
Customer Specific Term Plan. See Customer Specific Term Plan.
Channel Service Unit. Also called a Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit or CSU/DSU because it contains a built-in DSU device. A device to terminate a digital channel on a customer's premises. It performs certain line coding, line-conditioning and equalization functions, and responds to loopback commands sent from the central office. A CSU sits between the digital line coming in from the central office and devices such as channel banks or data communications devices. A Channel Service Unit is found on every digital link and allows the transfer of data at a range greater than 56 Kbps. A 56 Kbps circuit would need a 56 Kbps DSU on both ends to transfer data from one end to the other. A CSU looks like your basic "modem," except it can pass data at rates much greater and does not permit dial-up functions (unless it has an
Channel Sharing Unit. Line bridging device that allows several inputs to share one output. CSUs exist to handle any input/output combination of sync or asynch terminals, computer ports, or modems and thus these units are variously called modem sharing units, digital bridges, port sharing units, digital sharing devices, modem contention units, multiple access units, control signal activated electronic switches or data-activated electronic switches.
Canadian Satellite Users Association. Trade association of satellite users.
Comma Separated Values. Commonly used
Computer Telephony. See Computer Telephony.
A computer telephony call control server software that connects a wide range of telephone switches (PBXs and ACDs) to a variety of data processing environments. By bridging the PBX and IT infrastructure, CTI applications such as screen pops and intelligent call routing are easily implemented in call centers. CT Connect runs on Windows NT and SCO UnixWare and supports standard programming interfaces such as TAPI, TSAPI and DDE. See Computer Telephony.
Cordless Telephony Generation 1. A new type of low-cost public cordless telephone system getting popular in Europe. You carry a cheap handset. You go to within several hundred yards of a local antenna and you make your phone call. You can't receive calls as you can on a cellular radio. You can't make calls unless you're close to the antenna. The service helps overcome the serious lack of street-side coin and public phones in Europe. CT1 is the analog version of the interface specification. See CT2, CT2+, CT3 and DECT.
Cordless Telephony Generation 2, interface specification for digital technology, currently in use in the U.K. for telepoint (payphone) applications. Think of telepoint phones as cellular phones but using micro-cells. By having smaller cells than normal cellular cells, CT2 phones can be smaller, cheaper and lighter. The first generation of these phones didn't do well, since they weren't smaller and lighter; there weren't many micro-cells and you couldn't receive an incoming call. See CT1.
An expansion of the CT2 interface specification that would extend network capabilities and allow
Ericsson's proprietary cordless phone system.
Competitive Telecommunications Association. Trade association of alternate long distance carriers (resellers) in Canada.
See Communications Trouble and Analysis Center.
A Carrier Test Access Switch is a device that sits in a carrier's telecom network and is used to test multiple copper pair local loops. Such testing device is often used to test the quality of lines that will be used for high-speed DSL data service.
Canadian Telecommunications Consultants Association. Professional organization of telecommunications consultants.
Continuity Tone Detector.
An ATM term. Cell Transfer Delay: This is defined as the elapsed time between a cell exit event at measurement point 1 (e.g., at the source UNI) and the corresponding cell entry event at measurement point 2 (e.g., the destination UNI) for a particular connection. The cell transfer delay between two measurement points is the sum of the total inter-ATM node transmission delay and the total ATM node processing delay.
Connected Telecommunications Equipment. The European term for what the Americans call CPE ” Customer Premises Equipment. See CPE and CTE Directive.
Channel Translation Equipment.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion.
CTE stands Connected Telecommunications Equipment. The European term for what the Americans call CPE ” Customer Premise Equipment. The CTE Directive refers to a paper on the proposed European-wide regulation of telecommunications terminals. That paper was published in the summer of 1997 by the European Commission. The proposed title is "European Parliament and Council Directive connected telecommunications equipment and the mutual recognition of the
Conformity assessment will be based upon the principle of manufacturers' declarations and the principle that products reaching the market which do not conform to the
CTRs and ACTE disappear with the repeal of Directive 91/263 but a new Telecommunications Conformity Assessment and Market surveillance committee (TCAM) will advise the Commission and Notified Bodies still have a role. CTRs
Operators of all networks will be required to publish, and regularly update, accurate and adequate technical specifications of the available network termination points and the terminal types supported.
Flexibility is achieved by means whereby the essential requirements applicable to new network termination types can be determined in a
Prevention of misuse of public network resources causing a degradation of service to third parties.
Interworking via the public network(s) and Community-wide portability between ONTPs specifying a basic level of interworking, e.g. simple voice telephony but excluding supplementary services.
Effective use of spectrum allocated to terrestrial/space radio communication and used for radio services recognizing that trades-off will be necessary between the quality, capacity, and availability.
For each type of Connected Terminal Equipment (CTE) formerly defined as Telecommunications Terminal Equipment, the essential requirements applicable are to be selected from a master list contained in the Directive. The technical requirements will be defined in appropriate technical specifications. These will be harmonized European standards or, in cases where such standards do not yet exist, other appropriate technical specifications. The specifications of essential requirements will take into account the following additional requirements for the common good:
Protection of health, e.g. minimizing the health hazards of radio frequency radiation.
Features for users with
Features for emergency and security services.
Protection of individual privacy.
Computer Telephone Integration. A term for connecting a computer (single workstation or file server on a local area network) to a telephone switch (a PBX or an ACD) and having the computer issue the telephone switch commands to move calls around. The classic application for CTI is in call centers. Picture this: A call comes in. That call carries some form of caller ID ” either ANI or Caller ID. The switch "hears" the calling number, strips it off, sends it to the computer. The computer then does a lookup for the numbers in a database, sends the switch back instructions on what to do with the call. The switch
CTI and CT (computer telephony) are often
See also Computer Telephony, TAPI, TAPI 3.0, TSAPI and Windows Telephony.
Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association, aka Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. The name change was made to reflect the increasing focus on wireless Internet access. Based in Washington, D.C., the CTIA is a trade association representing the interests of the wireless telecommunications industry. CTIA also is the parent of CIBERNET Corp., which provides the cellular industry with inter-company billing protocols, roaming administration tools, and financial
Computer Telephony Interface Products. Adapters that allow telephones to work with computers. An example is the Konexx connector, which fits between the handset and the phone, and allows a connection to a PC modem or fax machine. This definition
See Call Tracking Number.
Consumers' Telecommunications Network. A telecommunications association in Australia that represents consumers and looks after their interests: the CTN is part of the Australian Communications Authority's Consumer Consultative Forum (CCF). See Consumer Consultative Forum.
See Chief Technology Officer.
Control. The label on the control key on your computer.
Clear To Send. Pin 5 on the 25-conductor RS-232-C interface or an RS-232-C signal used in the exchange of data between the computer and a serial device. In short, Clear to send is one of the nine wires in a serial port used in modem communications, CTS carries a signal from the modem to the computer saying, "I'm ready to start when you are."
Communication Transport System. CTS is The Siemon Company's proprietary structured wiring system. It consists of the methodology and the connecting hardware products to plan, design, and implement the communications wiring infrastructure for commercial buildings (for more information see the company's CTS Design Workbook and CTS Training Videotape). The Siemon Company is based in Watertown, CT.
Conformance Testing Services.
Coax To The Curb. An approach that provisions a multiline remote terminal to deliver voice and data to concentrated residential applications.
Centralized Trunk Test Unit. An operational support system providing centralized trunk maintenance through a data link on a switch.
Console TeletYpe, a contraction of "Console" and "TTY" (TeleType). A terminal keyboard associated with the console of a computer system, such as a PBX. Also, the designation for the cable that connects the CTY to the computer system. See also Console and TTY.
A popular videoconferencing and videophone product that works over the Internet. CU-SeeMe was originally developed at Cornell University and is available free for the PC and the Macintosh. An enhanced commercial version that adds an electronic chalk- board is available from White Pine Software. The software is designed for personal use and for use in instruction and in business communications.
Common User Access. The policy of using the same command for a given function in all software. This makes the software easier to learn and use because you only have to learn one set of commands. Windows has a set of CUA guidelines which many Windows programs follow. For example, Alt+F4 always means close this window.
An office filled with cubicles. See also Prairie Dogging.
See Customized User Billing Interface System.
Telecom slang for some 6- and 10-button models of AT&T 1A2 wall phones shaped vaguely like traditional cuckoo-clocks. These were probably the first multi- line phones to come with handsets that plugged into the base with Trimline-style 5-pin plugs, before the current modular connectors were adopted. Often seen in
Closed User Group. Selected collection of terminal users that do not accept calls from sources not in their group and that are also often restricted from sending messages outside the group.
The temperature at which certain elements (usually so-called "rare earth" elements) relax their resistance to magnetic changes. In a magneto-optic disk drive the surface to be marked is heated briefly by a laser light to its Curie point. Magnetism is then applied in the proper polarity to make the spot a "1" or a "0." It cools, and is locked in that position, until it is re-heated and changed again. This is how magneto-optic drives can be erasable.
A measure of how much electricity
The maximum current an insulated conductor can safely carry without
The function of a circuit or system that maintains a current within its prescribed limits. A circuit breaker terminates current flow when current exceeds the trip limit. Most UPS systems have an electrical subcycle current limit that regulates the output current to a value within the UPS design limits. This subcycle current limit may activate when a load demanding high inrush current (like a computer or phone system) is switched on. The activation of the subcycle current limit protects the UPS from damage but allows the output voltage to become
Transmission technique that recognizes current flows, rather than voltage levels. It has traditionally been used in teletypewriter networks incorporating batteries as the transmission power source. In this serial transmission system, a pair of wires connecting the receiving and sending devices transmits binary 0 (zero) when no current flows and binary 1 (one) when current is flowing.
CV. Latin for resume. CV is summary of your academic and work history. That's the traditional definition. I personally believe that your resume should include less history and more on your accomplishments ” since that's what
A symbol on a screen indicating where the next character may be typed. Cursors may be solid, blinking, underlines, etc. Many programs, computers and phone systems allow you to
A liquid crystal display on a computer laptop screen does- n't write to screen very fast. When you move a cursor across your screen or move your mouse quickly across the screen, the cursor disappears. This
A computer imaging term. Paint packages handle curves and arcs in a variety of ways. Examples include spline curves, where-in you specify a series of points and the package draws a curve that smoothly approaches those points, and "three point" curves, in which the first two points anchor the ends of the curve and the third selects the apex.
See Customer Code.
An Internet videoconferencing system that enables up to eight users to see and hear each other on their computer screens. Pronounced "See You, See me."
Well-written program. Excellent work. A program that does all that it says it will, and more, is said to be cuspy.
A group of special services available from the central office switching system which the telco can offer its subscribers without the need for any special terminal equipment on their premises. Basic custom calling features now available include call waiting, 3-way calling, abbreviated dialing (speed calling), call forwarding, series completing (busy or no answer) and wake up or reminder service.
A type of microchip that is custom-made to perform a specialized job or is customized to provide a particular function or feature not found in standard microchips.
Controls are software objects that you embed in a Visual Basic or other Windows development tool. In the old days you would compile your DOS program with a "library" of some precompiled subprograms and functions. Controls take the idea a step further and give you tremendous power, all within the Windows Graphical User Interface (GUI). The original Visual Basic "custom controls" were programmed by third parties and behave identically to controls shipped with Visual Basic:
They appear in the Visual Basic toolbox.
You control their behavior from your software.
They generate events that your program can respond to.
And they have properties that your program can change. There are hundreds of controls out there for Visual Basic for database management, multimedia presentations, imaging, host connectivity, etc. The ones that concern us do computer telephony stuff (though anything can be leveraged, like host connectivity for IVR, etc.):
A version of ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) provided off an AT&T 5ESS central office. It actually offers more features and is easier to install than a National ISDN-1 BRI line. We are all awaiting the specifications on National ISDN-2, which is meant to be "standard." Meantime, Custom ISDN is the most popular, most versatile and most
CLASS. A generic term (like WATS) describing several enhanced local service offerings such as incoming-call identification, call trace, call blocking, automatic return of the most recent incoming call, call redial, and selective forwarding and programming to permit
CALC. Also known variously as Access Charge, EUCL (End User Line Charge), and SLC (Subscriber Line Charge). See Access Charge.
An Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions, ATIS industry standard for formatting exchange of subscription information. See CARE.
Customer Acquisition Cost is the average cost to a carrier of signing up an individual subscriber. Some of the factors included in this cost are handset subsidies, marketing, advertising and promotions.
See Leaf POP.
A term created by Alex Szlam, the president of Melita International, Norcross, GA to describe a telephone call center with three basic elements: First, the database technology and the marketing savvy to fill that database with individual customer preference information. Second, the ability to intelligently handle inbound phone calls. Third, the ability to intelligently make outbound calls. See also Customer Sensitivity Knowledge Base.
Cus Code. A new Customer Code is assigned to distinguish a converted CLEC sub-account from the old Verizon end user account.
A term invented by Keith Dawson, editor of Call Center Magazine. It refers to all the information a customer requires which is delivered through multiple media, including manned call centers, interactive voice response machines, fax back devices, etc.
An AT&T term for the ability for an end user to monitor, choose, modify, redesign and/or program the type of service received from a network.
CIN. A unique number that identifies a customer. Also known as Master Customer Number.
CIM. An MCI definition. A component of the NCS which supports the creation and maintenance of customer databases for Vnet customers. Customers have remote access to and control over their portion of the NCS database via a terminal at the customer's location.
Customer Interaction Software is a vague term for software that handles your entire relationship with your customers. See also Contact Management.
A measure of the closeness of an organization's relationships with its customers. Research has shown that better, or more intimate, relationships with customers contribute to customer loyalty, increased sales, and higher profits, even when there is an unfavorable price differential. A Lucent definition.
CNM. An ATM term. CNM allows users of ATM public networks to monitor and manage their portion of the carrier's circuits. Thus far, the ATM forum has agreed that the CNM interface will give users the ability to monitor physical ports, virtual paths, usage parameters, and quality of service parameters.
CPE. Terminal equipment ” telephones, key systems, PBXs, modems, video conferencing devices, etc. ” connected to the telephone network and residing on the customer's premises. What North America calls CPE, Europe calls CTE ” for Connected Telecommunications Equipment.
CPNI. Information which is available to a telephone company by virtue of the telephone company's basic service customer relationship. This information may include the quantity, location, type and amount of use of local telephone service subscribed to, and information contained on telephone company bills. This is the definition of CPNI that the independent voice mail and live telephone answering industry uses.
The customer assumes responsibility for ordering, coordinating, maintaining, and billing for the local loop.
Or just Customer Provided Equipment (CPE). Terminal equipment connected to the telephone network which is owned by the user or leased from a supplier other than the local telephone operating company.
Same as Customer Validation.
CRIS. A Verizon database containing end user information used for billing.
A subsequent attempt by a phone users to make a phone call within a measurement period.
A term created by Alex Szlam of Melita International, Norcross, GA to describe a complex database that would keep track of your customers' preferences. Such a database would be updated almost automatically based on every contact you had with the customer. The database would probably be object- oriented since the idea is to define customer preferences based on individual preferences, not on a statistical analysis of conglomerate preferences such as those typically gleaned from existing character databases.
CSC. MCI organization responsible for installing, verifying, and maintaining MCI customers and customer service.
CSR. Computer printout that details the fixed monthly charges billed by your local telephone company. The CSR is composed of computer codes called USOCs, which in turn correspond to a particular tariffed service. USOCs tell the telephone company's billing system what tariff rate should be billed for a particular service. In order to ensure your telephone bill is correct you must request and review this document. No telecom manager should be without this important document.
CSU. A device that provides an accessing arrangement at a user location to either switched or point-to-point, digital circuits. A CSU provides local loop equalization, transient protection, isolation, and central office loop-back testing capability. See also CSU/DSU.
A Customer Specific Term Plan is an option offered by AT&T on the purchase of its 800 services whereby customers can earn additional
A switching system that provides service for a customer, typically a business customer. Systems in this category include key telephone systems, private branch exchanges (PBXs), automatic call distributors (ACDs), and telephone answering systems.
CUBIS. A system that allows InterExchange Carriers to monitor and update subscriber service orders. This assists in maintaining an accurate end-user customer database for billing purposes.
To transfer a service from one facility to another.
A technique for measuring optical fiber attenuation or distortion by performing two transmission measurements. One is at the output end of the full length of the fiber. The other is within 1 to 3
A method of securing a wire to a wiring terminal. The insulated wire is placed in the terminal groove and
Cut-through, in voice processing, is what stops voice prompt playback when a touchtone key is pressed. Some of the speech recognition solutions also add cut-through that will stop voice prompt playback as soon as you start talking. Only voice cards that support continuous speech recognition are able to provide cut-through. Cut- though can be a problem in some cases. Imagine yourself at the airport trying to make a call using a speech recognition system. At the start of a new prompt, the airport public address system blares out a last boarding call for a flight. If cut-through is active, it would stop playing the prompt and wait on your response. Now what do you do?
The act of connecting one circuit to another, or a phone to a circuit. This is when a user dials the access code for the circuit and is immediately "cut through" to the tie line. The user controls the call. It is a tie line operation.
See also Cut Through Switch.
10 + CIC = telephone number followed by an authorization code for intraLATA calls.
A measure of an insulation's ability to withstand penetration by sharp edges.
A type of switch algorithm in which the destination address of a packet is read and the packet immediately forwarded to the switch port where the destination MAC address device is attached.
When you're ahead of the curve, on the leading edge, you're also on the cutting edge.
A term that refers to the phenomenon whereby landline telephone subscribers get themselves a wireless cell phone and decide they like it so much they cancel their landline phone.
A waveguide of adjustable length that varies the attenuation of signals passing through the waveguide.
The frequency above which, or below which, the output current in a circuit, such as a line or a filter, is reduced to a specified level.
The frequency below which a radio wave fails to
The highest order mode that will propagate in a given waveguide at a given frequency.
In fiber optic systems, the cutoff wavelength is the shortest wavelength at which only the fundamental node on an optical waveguide is capable of propagation. For single mode fibers, the cutoff wavelength must be smaller than the wavelength of the light to be transmitted.
The physical changing of lines or trunks from one phone system to another, or the installation of a new system. It's usually done over the
Old Bell-Speak for single-line phone. It stands for Combined Voice. In old Bell-Speak it meant that the two parts of the phone that dealt with voices were combined into one unit (the handset). Before this, there were phones like the HH (Hand-Held) where there was a piece you spoke into and another piece you put to your ear. From CV, you get CVW (CV Wall phone) and later on, KV (Key Voice) and KVW (Key Wall phone). Later on all this crept into the USOC codes ” the Universal Service Order Code numbering systems the local Bell operating phone companies used to identify products and services. See USOC.
Code Violation. A violation in the coding of a signal over a digital circuit. A transmission error detected by the difference between the transmitted and the locally calculated bit-interleaved parity. Also called Coding Violation.
Curriculum Vitae. See Curriculum Vitae.
Chemical Vapor Deposition.
Compressed Volume File. A Microsoft term which refers to a file on a compressed disk. The term was first introduced in MS-DOS 6.0, which first had double-your-disk-space technology. That technology was later removed when Stac Electronics, originator of Stacker disk doubling technology, took Microsoft to court and won.
Certified Vertical Partner.
A British term: Co-
Computer Vision Syndrome.
Continuously Variable Slope Delta modulation. A method for coding analog voice signals into digital signals that uses 16,000 to 64,000 bps bandwidth, depending on the sampling rate.
Call Waiting (as in Custom Calling Service).
Communications Workers of America. A national union of telephone industry employees, currently very worried about its future membership growth given the phone industry's
Coarse wavelength division multiplexing; A form of optical wavelength division multiplexing which relies upon wider spacings between channels in order to lower component costs. The latest standards specify a 20 nm (2500 GHz) channel separation, notably wider than the 0.8 nm (100 GHz) commonly used by dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). Although this yields less aggregate fiber bandwidth (typically on the order of 10-16
Compact Wireless Markup Language. A stripped-down version of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), which is used between client and server in support of the World Wide Web over wired connections. CML is used in support of i-Mode, the DoCoMo technology used to support wireless Internet access from cell phones and other devices in Japan. CML is similar to WML (Wireless Markup Language), which is used in WAP (Wireless Access Protocol). See also i-Mode, WAP, and WML.
A direct current (DC) signaling system that separates the signal from the voice band by filters. Also called Composite Signaling.
Commerce XML, a new set of document type definitions (DTDs) for the Extensible Markup Language (XML), will be released to the public in March 1999 for an open comment period and pilot testing. cXML is an explicit
People who use the system for hours on end are said to be lost in cyberspace. Today, many people say that world has arrived in the form of the Internet. And, so with projections that there will be 100 million users of the Internet by the year 2000, the word Cyber has become popular. There's "The Cyberbrary of Congress" (books Congress has on on-line). According to William Safire writing in the New York Times Magazine of December 11, 1994, "Cyber is the hot combining form of our time. If you don't have cyberphobia, you are a cyberpiliac." The US News & World Report labels its election night on-line forum a cybercast. The Washington Post wrote that "battlefield valor belongs not to the brawny soldier but to the astrophysics major who invented smart
A company that does most of its business on the Internet is called a Cyberbusiness.
An Internet term. The electronic equivalent of a lounge
Establishment with both coffee and Internet access. Trendy in some places, unknown in others. Often used as a retail store to sign up customers to Internet service by a local ISP.
An electronic payment system integrated into E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce) servers, which typically make use of the Internet. Also called digital cash, the term "Cybercash" was coined by CyberCash Inc. to describe its systems for verification of credit cards and processing of payments. See also E-Commerce.
The computer equivalent of bureaucratese. There's also a lot of it found on email systems. It looks like useless clutter, but it's important and the better interfaces hide it.
Electronic stuff for the cyberpeople. An advertisement in the November 12, 1995 issue of the New York Times (Sunday) Magazine showed Cyberia covering everything from modern chairs to laptop computers, to cellular phones to an Apple Newton PDA.
A Web site designed for online shopping, shared by two or more commercial organizations.
A term invented in 1948 by Norbert Wiener, the automation genius, who declared "We have decided to call the entire field of control and communications theory, whether in the machine or the animal, by the same term Cybernetics." From the Greek "kybernetes," meaning "pilot, "steersman" or "
An Internet term. Used to describe dark,
Government money flowing to well-connected information superhighway contractors.
A work coined by a book called "Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier" by Katie Hafner and John Markoff. The book defines Cyberpunk as what you and I know as a computer hacker ” a person who manages to get into other people's computer systems. He does this usually through telephone lines. In most cases, hackers see themselves as harmless electronic joyriders. But they occasionally steal data, inject viruses and misleading information and
Adult-oriented computer games, images and chat lines. A place where people can discuss their sex lives and wanton desires with total strangers in online (over phone line) forums, even falling in love without having ever met face to face.
Browsing the Internet. See Cyberspace.
A term coined by science fiction writer William Gibson in his 1984 fantasy novel "Neuromancer" to describe the "world" of connected computers and the society that gathers around them. The idea of Cyberspace is that this world of computer networks can be explored with the proper addresses and codes. People who use the system for hours on end are said to be lost in cyberspace. Today, many people say that world has arrived in the form of the Internet. John Perry Barlow, a rock-'n'-roll lyricist turned computer activist, defined cyberspace in Time magazine as "that place you are in when you are talking on the phone." Thus by Barlow's definition, just about everybody has already been to cyberspace. I prefer Gibson's definition.
Let's say you register www.CocaCola.com and the names of the 100 most common corporate names in America. When the company comes to you and demands the Web site, you ask for $250,000. That practice is called cybersquatting.
Basically you're squatting on someone else's property. The analogy between electronic squatting and physical squatting isn't 100% accurate. But you get the idea. Stories of big profits being made got around and the Federal government enacted the Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (15 U.S.C.S. 1125(d)), which provides a cause of action against a domain name registrant based on the bad faith registration of a domain name that is identical or confusingly similar to, or in the case of a famous mark, dilutive of, the trademark owner's mark or marks. Since then, a number of cases have succeeded in U.S. courts using the newly enacted legislation. Similarly, the global community is keeping busy fighting cybersquatters, including the creation of new anticybersquatting laws, litigation in a variety of countries, and arbitration before the World Intellectual Property Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. According to Adrian Copiz, an attorney in Washington, D.C, "although a good number of the disputed registrations may be legitimate, it looks like the days of quick profits and holding domain names hostage may be over."
A term I first saw in the mid-December, 1997 injunction from Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson of the U.S. District Court in Washington. Judge Jackson
State one quickly gets in while waiting for the screen to change on busy (or just plain slow) sites.
A contraction of CYBERnetics and ORGanism. A human being who is linked to one or more devices on which he is dependent for survival in a hostile environment. See Cybernetics.
A person who makes a living doing online research and information retrieval (comes from cyberspace librarian). According to one definition I read, a cybrarian is a futurist librarian who swims in the electronic ocean of cyberspace. The term is alleged to have been coined by Michel Bauwens of BP Nutrition. A cybrarian is also known as a data surfer or a super searcher.
One complete sequence of an event or activity. Often refers to electrical phenomena. One electrical cycle is a complete sine wave. (A complete set of one positive and one negative
The farming out of number-
In the battery business, cycle life is the useful life of a rechargeable battery, expressed as the total number of discharges and recharges.
An MCI system which selects processable calls from Distribution and forwards them to the appropriate MCI Reference System for billing.
Part of the bus management scheme used in the IEEE 1394 connection technology. The cycle master broadcasts cycle start packets, which are required for isochronous operation. An isochronous resource manager, for DV and DA applications, is also included for those nodes that support isochronous operation. Also included is an optional bus master.
Where dial-up call records are stored in MCI's Revenue System until extracted for billing.
A discontinuity in the measured carrier beat phase resulting from a temporary loss-of-lock in the carrier tracking loop of a Global Positioning System receiver.
The time to complete a cycle. The amount of the time between one RAM access and the next.
In telegraphy, distortion that is not characteristic, bias, or fortuitous, and which in general has a periodic character. Its causes are, for example, irregularities in the duration of contact time of the brushes of a transmitter distributor or interference by distributing alternating currents.
A hard disk drive contains a number of platters, which are divided into tracks. A cylinder is a collection of all corresponding tracks on all sides of the platters in a disk drive. Think of a hard disk consisting of dozens of concentric cylinders, each of slightly different diameters. These distinct concentric storage areas on the hard disk
According to the New York Times, cyperpunks are a movement of American computer mavens, a largely libertarian group espousing the idea that advanced computer encryption technologies can create electronic privacy and provide liberty and freedom from potential government Big Brothers.