In this chapter, you learned about the various network management tools such as CiscoView, CiscoWorks, Traffic Director RMON, VLAN Switch Management, NetSys Network Management Suite, WAN Manager, NetSys Baseliner 4.0, and NetSys SLM Suite. In addition, you learned the different Cisco diagnostic commands such as show, ping, debug, and trace. You also learned about the Cisco Discovery Protocol. In the
The Cisco network management tools have been developed on the Cisco AVVID guidelines to provide centralized monitoring and management capabilities to
CiscoView is a device management tools that uses a Graphic User Interface (GUI) to display the status of Cisco devices on the network. It also provides real-time information about the status and configuration of Cisco devices on the network.
The Traffic Director Remote Monitor is a traffic management tool that
The VLAN Director Switch Management application provides management capabilities for VLAN ports.
Cisco WAN Manager (CWM) is a multiprotocol network management application based on SNMP. It provides a number of services such as fault, configuration, performance, account and security management, and planning, modeling, and analysis.
NetSys is a simulation tool that provides network planners, analysts, and managers with planning and analytical capabilities.
The NetSys Baseliner is a tool that diagnoses network problems by simulating the current configuration of the network.
The NetSys SLM suite is a policy-based network management application, which establishes service levels while defining, monitoring, and assessing network connectivity, security, and performance policies.
Diagnostic commands are built into Cisco IOS to provide information that is used for diagnosing network problems. The important diagnostic commands are show, debug, ping, and trace.
Cisco IOS provides a range of show commands that display information about the rate of utilization of router resources, network interface status, and router configurations.
The ping command is used to check the connectivity between the nodes on the network.
The debug command is an advanced command that provides high-end options for monitoring and retrieving network data for troubleshooting.
The trace command is used to determine the route followed by the data packets on the network.
CDP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that functions at the Data-link layer and supports heterogeneous network layer protocols on different networks.
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Networks are sensitive and require constant monitoring during and after installation. As a network administrator, you should be able to diagnose network problems and take effective remedial actions using troubleshooting tools. This chapter surveys the tools for monitoring and troubleshooting network problems pertaining to Cisco internetworking devices, including routers and switches.
The troubleshooting tools discussed in the chapter include native software products developed by Cisco, Cisco IOS commands, and third-party tools that cater to specific troubleshooting needs. Each tool operates at a particular OSI layer and ascertains systematic diagnosis of network bottlenecks at that layer. However, some tools applied for troubleshooting Cisco devices such as routers and switches may impede their performance. As a result, you need to be judicious about applying a tool in a particular situation,
Cable testers are used at the Physical layer to check the network for transmission media-
Low spectrum cable testing involves testing the transmission media for parameters pertaining to the physical connectivity of networks. These parameters are AC and DC voltage, current,
Some advanced cable testers provide Time Domain Reflectometers (TDR), traffic monitoring, and wire map functions. In addition, low spectrum cable testers provide limited protocol testing support using diagnostic commands, such as ping.
Low spectrum cable testers (
Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs) and Optical Time Domain Reflectometers (OTDRs) are devices that identify the cable break location, impedance
Fiber optic cables are highly sensitive and should be kept clean. Many problems occur due to dirty cables. Use an optical cleaning kit to keep the optical cable connection clean.
OMNI is a commonly used cable scanner provided by Microtest that has the ability to test all the cables that support a wide range of 100 dB and a bandwidth of 300 MHz.
High spectrum cable testing involves testing the transmission media to check for impedance mismatch, crimps, and other physical problems in metallic and fiber cables, respectively. Devices such as TDRs and OTDRs check connectivity at this level.
A TDR works by “bouncing” a signal at the end of a cable. Due to various problems in the cable,
Distance (d) = Propagation Rate x Time to Measure the Distance to a Cable Fault
In addition to troubleshooting, TDRs measure the length of the cable. This is measured when the signal is returned at very low amplitude after it is reflected from the end of the cable.
OTDRs test fiber optic cables and detect the length of cable breaks, attenuations, and splice losses. In addition, they calculate the number of reflections to compute connector losses.
OTDRs are also used to measure fiber attenuation using pulse reflections, which occur at breaks or joints and uniformly scatter the reflections in a backward direction throughout the fiber optic cable.
Spectrum analyzers analyze the light with respect to the wavelength that helps detect channel crosstalk. It also conducts periodic laser tests on fiber optic cables for better performance and stability.
As a network administrator, you can specify the normal baseline or standard performance of fiber optic cables, based on the normal rate of attenuation and splicing. While monitoring the network, use these baseline statistics to detect cabling problems.
Fixed attenuators can be used to add fixed attenuation levels to connections, including five attenuators with 5 dB at a wavelength of 1310 nm and another 5 with 10 dB at the same wavelength.