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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Goleniewski, Lillian.

Telecommunications essentials : the complete global source for communications fundamentals, data networking and the Internet, and next-generation networks / Lillian Goleniewski.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-201-76032-0

1. Telecommunication. I. Title.

TK5101 G598 2002

621.382—dc21 2001053752

Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada.

For information on obtaining permission for use of material from this work, please submit a written request to:

Pearson Education, Inc.

Rights and Contracts Department

75 Arlington Street, Suite 300

Boston, MA 02116

Fax: (617) 848-7047

Text printed on recycled paper

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—CRS—0504030201

First printing, December 2001


To all students of telecom worldwide, who continue to inspire me with their desire to learn about the industry and reward me with their genuine enthusiasm about the subject when they understand it!



I love telecommunications. It is powerful and it empowers, with far-reaching consequences. It has demonstrated the potential to transform society and business, and the revolution has only just begun. With the invention of the telephone, human communications and commerce were forever changed: Time and distance began to melt away as a barrier to doing business, keeping in touch with loved ones, and being able to immediately respond to major world events. Through the use of computers and telecommunications networks, humans have been able to extend their powers of thinking, influence, and productivity, just as those in the Industrial Age were able to extend the power of their muscles, or physical self, through use of heavy machinery. Today, new inventions and developments are again poising telecommunications as a force to be reckoned with, forever changing human communications and commerce, and introducing machines as members of the networked society. This is an exciting era, and we face a host of new telecommunications technologies and applications that bring breathtaking new opportunities, particularly in the industries of entertainment, education, health care, government, advertising, lifestyle, and, sadly, warfare.

I have a favorite quote, from Eric Hoffer's Vanguard Management: "In a time of drastic change, it is the learners who inherit the future. The learned find themselves equipped to live in a world that no longer exists." That you are reading this book shows that you are aware of the monumental changes taking place in telecommunications infrastructures and usage and that you are eager to learn what those are—as well you should be! This book provides a thorough foundation for understanding a wide range of telecommunications principles and technologies.

If you are new to the communications and information industry, or if you simply want an understandable, yet comprehensive overview of telecommunications, this book is for you. Telecommunications Essentials will equip you with a blueprint on which you can build. The telecommunications landscape is vast; for a newcomer, it is treacherous terrain to navigate. This book provides you with a logical progression in gluing together all the pieces of the telecommunications puzzle. This book helps you to master the basic building blocks of key technologies, from the principles of telecommunications transmission and networking to the current and evolving nature of the Internet, broadband architecture, and optical networking, addressing both wired and wireless alternatives.