Trim-Out Installation

Trim OutInstallation

In this chapter, you will learn about

  • Cable termination
  • Wall plate installation
  • Distribution panel installation
  • Cable testing

Following the rough-in phase of a home technology integration project, after the wallboard has been put up, finished or repaired, the next phase to be performed is the trim-out. In this phase of the project, the structured wiring, at least from its outward appearance, begins to take shape with the cables terminated at the outlets, the distribution panel components installed and connected, and the cabling tested and verified.


Cable Termination

A structured wiring cable is terminated at each end, one end at the outlet and the other at the distribution panel or an intermediate device, such as a patch panel or hub. The type of termination applied depends on the cable and its intended use at the outlet. For example, coaxial cabling being terminated at an outlet to provide a connection for distributed video or a Cat 5e cable being terminated for a data network connection will each be connected to the outlet connections with a device and method specific to the cable and its application.

Telephone Cable

The trim-out work for a home telephone system involves the termination of Cat 5 UTP at both the telephone block, either inside or outside of the central distribution panel, and at the telephone outlets.

Terminating at the Telephone Block

The cabling installed to provide telephone links throughout a home are connected into the telephone system using a telephone panel or block located inside or very near the structured wiring distribution panel.

The telephone block, shown in Figure 8-1, is commonly referred to as a 110 punch-down block and commonly consists of two columns of 50 IDC contacts. Each row of contacts, which is or can be connected to one another as one circuit of the panel consists of one contract from each column. On some blocks, the pairs are internally linked and on others a bridging clip must be inserted over the inner two contacts to bridge the outer contacts.

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Figure 8-1: A telephone block with 110-type IDC contacts

Photo courtesy of the Dynacom Corporation.

When terminating Cat 5 cabling for a telephone system, a 110-type block should be used. Typically, a 66-type block is used in telephone systems where quad wire is in use, but the 110-type IDC contacts, which have shorter contacts, are better suited to Cat 5 cable.

A punch-down tool is used to press the unstripped wire into the IDC contact, which cuts through the conductor’s insulation and makes connection with the inner conductor. Another approach that works a lot better in situations where the terminations may need to move at some point in the future are patch cables that are terminated with a 110-pattern plug on one end and an RJ-45 plug on the other.

The standard wire pattern, meaning the color sequence of the wire as it is placed into the 110 block, is shown in Figure 8-2 and listed in Table 8-1.

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Figure 8-2: The color scheme used for Cat 5 cabling in a 110 punchdown block

Table 8-1: Cat 5/5e 110-block Wire Color Scheme

Wire Color

Pair

Contact

White/Blue

1

1

Blue or Blue/White

1

2

White/Orange

2

3

Orange or Orange/White

2

4

White/Green

3

5

Green/Green/White

3

6

White/Brown

4

7

Brown or Brown/White

4

8

  Note

If you consistently reverse one or more of the wire colors, not to worry. As long as the wire pattern is exactly the same on each end of a terminated cable, everything should still work. However, following the standard removes all guesswork about how consistent you’ve been.

Telephone Outlets

Telephone cabling should be terminated at the wall outlet with an RJ-11 jack, using either a one, two, or three-pair configuration, depending on the number of lines to be connected through the wall outlet. Figure 8-3 illustrates the wire configuration of the RJ-11 terminations at a wall outlet and Table 8-2 lists the wire configurations for RJ-11 wall jacks.

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Figure 8-3: A one-pair (single line) and a two-pair (two line) RJ-11 connection

Table 8-2: RJ-11 jack wiring scheme for UTP cable

Wire Pair

Function

Position

UTP Wire Color

Quad Wire Color

1

Tip

Pin/Slot 4

White/Blue

Green

 

Ring

Pin/Slot 3

Blue (Blue/White)

Red

2

Tip

Pin/Slot 2

White/Orange

Black

 

Ring

Pin/Slot 5

Orange (Orange/White)

Yellow

3

Tip

Pin/Slot 1

White/Green

n/a

 

Ring

Pin/Slot 6

Green (Green/White)

n/a

Audio Cable

Most audio cabling is actually speaker wire and can be terminated in two ways: directly at an in-wall or in-ceiling speaker or at a wall outlet for hookup with external speakers. The wall outlet can be a stand-alone outlet or part of a multiple-connection outlet that includes other types of connections.

In situations where the audio cable or speaker wire terminates directly on a speaker, the wire must be prepared or terminated to connect to the connection type or types available on the speaker. Chapter 16 covers the specifics of terminating speaker cable and the various connector types that may be used.

Speaker Outlets

Figure 8-4 shows an example of a speaker outlet with four 5-way binding post connectors where local freestanding or bookshelf speakers can be connected. Binding posts are the most commonly used connector for audio system outlets.

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Figure 8-4: A four-connector speaker outlet

Photo courtesy of Niles Audio Corporation.

Speaker wire is secured to a binding post connector with a setscrew. Care should be taken to ensure that the right and left speaker wires are connected properly and the plugs on the face of the outlet are labeled properly. Audio cabling can also be terminated on simple screw connectors as well.

Audio Cable Termination

To properly terminate audio cabling, follow these guidelines:

  • Split the insulation between the conductors of the audio cable about 1-inch.
  • Remove -inch of insulation from each conductor.
  • If using screw-type or binding post connectors, wrap the stripped wire 180 degrees around the screw post in a clockwise direction and then tighten the setscrew. Don’t wrap the bare wire completely around the post, because when the setscrew is tightened, the wires could be damaged or broken, keep some of the insulation under the screw post.

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cabling, meaning RG-59 or RG-6 cable, is terminated at an outlet box using a variety of connector types (see Figure 8-5). The most common connector used is the F-type connector, shown in Figure 8-5 . Many coaxial outlet connectors require the cable to be terminated before it is connected to the back of the outlet. In others, the coaxial connection terminator is attached to the cable and then inserted into the outlet faceplate. On some, the connector is a permanent part of the faceplate and the cable must be terminated to the rear of the connection.

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Figure 8-5: An F-type jack is used to terminate coaxial cable at a wall outlet

Original photo courtesy of Channel Vision.

Coaxial connectors are attached to the cable using a variety of methods, including crimp-on, compression lock, threaded or twist-on, and several proprietary types of connectors. Some require standard crimper tools and other require a crimper made specifically for a particular brand or style of connector.

  CROSS-REFERENCE

See Chapter 2 for more information on coaxial cable terminations and connectors.

Data Outlets

Twisted-pair (TP) wiring, such as Cat 5 and Cat 5e, is terminated with an 8-pin RJ-45 connector using a method called punch down. There are RJ-45 connectors that can be attached to the cable with a crimper and others than merely clamp down on the individual wires with a clamping action or a snap close (see Figure 8-6).


Figure 8-6: A snap-in modular RJ-45 connector

  CROSS-REFERENCE

See Chapter 2 for more information on twisted pair cable terminations and connectors.

The best practice is to terminate TP and coaxial cabling with connectors (see Figures 8-5 and 8-6) that can be snapped into an open slot faceplate.

Video Outlets

Coaxial cabling is used for distributed video service lines. The best connectors to use when terminating video cabling are either compression lock or threaded male F-type coaxial connectors. As indicated above, the best practice is to use snap-in connectors that can be inserted into an open-slot faceplate at the outlet.

To terminate a video line, follow these guidelines: Use a coaxial cable stripping tool to remove -inch of the cable’s outer jacket.

  • Remove -inch of the center conductor wire.
  • Remove about -inch of the metal mesh and foil wrapping.
  • Create a slight gap between the mesh and the white dielectric insulator so that the dielectric insulation will fit into the F-type connector.
  • The back of an F-type connector has a channel (see Figure 8-7) where the cable is inserted. This channel has an outer chamber and an inner chamber. Gently push the cable into the back of the F-connector so that the dielectric insulation fits inside the inner channel of the connector and the metal mesh fits around the outer chamber. The dielectric insulation should make contact with the end of the channel.

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    Figure 8-7: An F-type connector body and sleeve to form the inner and outer channels

Photo courtesy of Leviton Voice & Data.

  • If the cable is properly inserted, the center conductor wire should stick out at least -inch from the front of the connector.
  • Using a coaxial (F-type) crimper, crimp the connector on the cable.
  • Trim the center conductor wire using a 45-degree angle so that it is not more than -inch beyond the front of the connector.

      CROSS-REFERENCE

    Chapter 2 includes more information about coaxial and twisted pair cable termination.

Faceplates

If modular or keystone faceplates, like the one shown in Figure 8-8, are used to hold multiple cable termination jacks, a consistent pattern of placement should be used in every location. A fairly commonly used convention (for a four slot faceplate) is to place the RJ-11 telephone jack in the upper-left position, the data network RJ-45 jack in the upper-right position, the video coaxial F-type jack in the lower-left position, and, if used, a video out coaxial F-type connector in the lower-right position. Figure 8-9 illustrates this arrangement.

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Figure 8-8: An open slot faceplate can accommodate any arrangement of cable connectors.

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Figure 8-9: An illustration of a commonly used convention for arranging modular jacks in a keystone faceplate.

Modular jacks are inserted into keystone and modular faceplates and wall plates by inserting them from the rear of the faceplate, as shown in Figure 8-10. Although this figure shows only a single jack being inserted, the process is essentially the same for multiple jacks.

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Figure 8-10: Modular RJ-45 jacks inserted in a keystone faceplate

Original image courtesy of Smarthome, Inc.


Testing Network Wiring

The good news about planning a network before installing it is that you and the customer both know what to expect when you are done, right? Unfortunately, the bad news is that both you and the customer know what to expect.

The first test, a visual test, should actually be performed during the rough-in phase as the cabling is installed. However, the cable ends where termination is applied should also be carefully examined. Also, be sure the cables have been properly labeled so that your hookup is correct for testing.

Standards Testing

The only way you can assure yourself and demonstrate to the customer that the network’s wiring and infrastructure supports the network to be installed on it is with a planned and formal test procedure that incorporates the TIA/EIA TSB-67, the Transmission Performance Specifications for Field-Testing of Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cabling Systems (TSB-67 for short), and the TSB-95, which provides additional test parameters for Cat 5 wiring.

A number of handheld devices are available to perform the tests prescribed in these two TSB standards. In fact, Cat 5 testers perform what is called a certified test that should assure your customer that his or her network wiring is installed per specification and is ready to support any network-capable devices attached to the network. Certifying the cable provides a benchmark for any future network or cable problems. However, you should know that Cat 5 testing devices can be quite expensive. Cable testing units include a master unit and a slave unit that are attached to the end of the cable segment being tested, and an auto-test function that measures the results of the test as either a pass or a fail.

Essentially, Cat 5 testing units perform two tests: a link test and a channel test. The link test measures the end-to-end connectivity of a cable segment and is typically done on the cable running from the distribution panel to a wall outlet. A channel test extends the link test to include devices attached to the cable segment.

A Cat 5 link (cable only) should not be more than 295 feet (90 meters) in length. A Cat 5 channel shouldn’t be more than 328 feet (100 meters) in length. The difference of 33 feet or 10 meters between a link and a channel represents the cables used to connect a computer or other device to a link. So what this boils down to is that the cable running between the patch panel and the wall jack can only be 90 meters in length and all of the cables used to connect a computer to a central device (like a gateway or router) cannot exceed 100 meters in length.

TSB Tests

The EIA/TIA TSB-95 standards specify the following standard testing procedures:

  • Attenuation test This test measures the attenuation affect on a signal transmitted on a cable. A series of frequencies up to 100 MHz is transmitted on each wire pair at one end of a link and the strength of the signal received at the other end of the cable is measured.
  • Length test As it sounds, this test measures the length of a cable segment. In addition to displaying the distance of the cable in feet or meters (at least to the point where the signal is reflected in the cable), this test checks the links and channels of a cable using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. TDR emits a signal pulse and then calculates the length of the cable based on what is called nominal velocity of propagation (NVP). If the test fails, the cable is too long.
  • Near-end crosstalk test (NEXT) This test places a test signal on one pair of wires and then measures all of the other wire pairs for signal presence to see how much crosstalk the cable is allowing. Crosstalk is electromagnetic signals on one wire being picked up by another wire.
  • Wire-map test Tests each individual wire in the cable and whether or not it maps to the same pin at each end of the cable. This test is used to identify connector and pinning errors on a cable segment.

Any link that fails one of these tests should be replaced, rewired, reconnected, or, in the case of the length test, shortened or replaced. If a channel fails, you may need to test the patch cords used to connect the networked device to the link.


Distribution Panel Trim Out

The distribution panel provides the interconnectivity of the structured wiring system, along with versatility and flexibility. It also provides for a single access point for all of the various home technology systems and communication services integrated into a home.

Typically, the only distribution panel found in an average home is the electrical panel. The electrical panel is the central point for incoming and service wiring in the home’s electrical system. In the same way, a structured wiring distribution panel simplifies and centralizes the design, installation, and perhaps more importantly, maintenance for the home’s structured wiring system.

The distribution panel should ideally be centrally located in a home. However, it’s far more important that it be central to the structured wiring to minimize the length of cable runs as much as possible. On the other hand, if a home has a natural location for its distribution panel, cable is relatively inexpensive.

Figure 8-11 illustrates how a room in the center of a home serves as a central distribution panel for the structured wiring installed throughout the home.

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Figure 8-11: A central point in the home should be chosen for the location of a home’s distribution panel.

Distribution Panel Installation

The distribution panel should be mounted on a wall at a safe distance from possible interference sources and at about eye-level. If the panel is mounted too low or too high, access to the panel could be cumbersome later. Distribution panels are either flush-mount, which means they are mounted into the wall (this type should be installed during rough-in), or surface-mount. In either case, if multiple panels are installed, they should be set side-by-side on the same level. If the distribution panel is a flush mount, run conduit between the multiple panels to allow for easy hookup.

Following the manufacturer’s documentation, remove the appropriate knockouts or plugs from the top or sides of the distribution panel’s cabinet. If the cabinet has metal knockouts, you should install protective grommets in each hole to protect the cabling that will pass through them.

All cabling in the distribution panel should be labeled about 6 to 10 inches below where the cable enters the cabinet. Actually, this step is included in the TIA/EIA standards, and each cable should be individually identified both at the termination point and on the cable.

The cables terminating in the distribution panel should be organized by room, zone, or system using Velcro ties, cable ties, or another form of cable management. A bit of organization now will save time during troubleshooting or system reconfiguration later.

Distribution Panel Components Installation

Structured wiring distribution panels are available from panel shells (see Figure 8-12) that contain none of the modules needed to terminate and distribute the systems attached to the structured wiring all the way to fully populated distribution panels (see Figure 8-13). In most residential installations, a typical distribution panel should contain the following modules:

  • Bridged telephone moduleThis module is used to bridge the telephone line connections from the telephone company’s network interface device (NID) to the telephone lines in a home. The telephone module should have the capacity to bridge at least the number of incoming lines to at least the number of telephone lines being installed in the home.
  • Data network moduleThis module interconnects the incoming Internet service connection (DSL, ISDN, or cable) to the residential gateway and the distributed network outlets in the home. The connections supported should include RJ-45 and 110-type IDC contacts.
  • Video splitter moduleThis module combines off-air antenna, cable television, or satellite receiver services to the distributed video outlets in the home.

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    Figure 8-12: An unpopulated distribution panel

Photo courtesy of Channel Vision.

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Figure 8-13: A fully populated distribution panel

Photo courtesy of Channel Vision.

  Note

Extra capacity in these modules, in the form of connections for additional incoming and distributed lines beyond a home’s current requirements, helps to future-proof a home.

Additional modules can also be installed, such as telephone or data security modules, video surveillance splitters, audio distribution modules, security system, and electrical surge suppressors or power line filters.

If the distribution panel modules must be installed into the distribution panel separately, a logical layout must be used to support cable management, ease of connection and troubleshooting, and perhaps most important, fit.

Placing Modules in the Distribution Panel

If the distribution panel is not pre-configured with the basic modules or if additional modules are being added to a pre-configured panel, the modules should be placed into the panel in the location where it can be easily attached and that provides the shortest path to the cabling to which it will connect.

There is no standard way to configure a distribution panel, but typically the modules are added starting at the top of the panel to simplify the cable management inside the panel. The panel shown in Figure 8-14 shows a completed distribution panel with its telephone and television distribution modules installed.

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Figure 8-14: A distribution panel with its television and telephone modules installed. Notice how the modules are installed at the top of the panel maximizing the remaining space in the panel for future use and providing for good cable management.

Mounting Distribution Panel Modules

Distribution panel modules typically include a mounting bracket kit that can be adjusted to fit the openings available in the panel back and allow some flexibility in their placement inside the panel. However, some add-in modules have screw-type connectors that are fixed in place (see Figure 8-15).

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Figure 8-15: An audio distribution module with fixed-position mounting screws

Photo courtesy of Channel Vision.

Snap-in standoffs, like the one shown in Figure 8-16, are commonly used to mount add-in modules into a distribution panel.

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Figure 8-16: A snap-in standoff like this one is commonly used to attach add-in modules into a distribution panel

Photo courtesy of Channel Vision.

Distribution Panel Connections

The cable terminations made at the distribution panel mirror those made at the outlet end of each cable. Twisted-pair cabling is most commonly terminated using 110-style punch-down connections and coaxial connections are made using F-type connectors. For audio connections that terminate into a distribution panel, screw-down terminals are usually used in the distribution panel. Depending on the complexity of the systems being installed in a home, the distribution panel may connect to other distribution devices. For example, the data network lines may first connect to a hub or bridge before connecting into the distribution panel. In this case, patch cords, shorter runs of TP cable, are used to connect the hub into the distribution panel. The same goes for coaxial cabling for the video and CAT5 cabling for a telephone system, where the distribution panel may connect into the video cable head-in or the telephone system demarcation point using patch cords.

When installing the AC power for the distribution panel, the appropriate national, state, and local electrical codes must be followed. For best results, the distribution panel should be wired into a dedicated 15-amp circuit using standard high-voltage electrical wiring. Many brands and models of structured wiring distribution panels void their warranties if their electrical guidelines aren’t followed exactly.

Distribution Panel Grounding

It is important that the distribution panel be grounded to an earth ground. The panel itself, a power module, or a surge suppression module, should have a grounding connection (typically a screw) that can be connected to the earth ground of the main power line to the panel (see Figure 8-17).

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Figure 8-17: The location of the grounding screw in a typical distribution panel

Grounding the panel’s AC power input provides grounded power distribution to any of the modules connecting to it, including DC power converters.

Patch Panels

In the network shown in Figure 8-18, five separate cable runs are coming into the distribution panel, which presents a design problem. It is always better to install extra distribution capability than just enough. For instance, if a 5-port hub or patch panel is used in the situation illustrated in Figure 8-18, in order to troubleshoot any of the connections, one of the other cables must be disconnected. So, in this particular case, an 8-port distribution device would be better.

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Figure 8-18: Basic elements of a home data network

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Figure 8-19: A distribution panel mountable patch panel

Photo courtesy of Channel Vision.

A better way to go would be to install a small patch panel that could be used as a distribution facility for telephone and data wiring as well. Figure 8-19 shows a patch panel of the type that can be installed inside a distribution panel. Patch panel models are available with 4 to 24 connections for home use. Data and voice cables are attached to the back of a patch panel jack using a 110-style punch-down connection.


Review

A structured wiring cable is terminated at each end, one end at the outlet and the other at the distribution panel or an intermediate device, such as a patch panel or hub. The type of termination applied depends on the cable and its intended use at the outlet.

Speaker wire can be terminated in one of two ways: at an in-wall or in-ceiling speaker or at a wall outlet, either as a stand-alone outlet or as a part of a multiple-connection outlet that includes other types of connections.

Coaxial cabling, meaning RG-59 or RG-6 cable, is terminated at an outlet box/wall plate using an F-type connector. Coaxial connectors are attached to the cable using crimp-on, compression lock, threaded or twist-on, as well as several proprietary connectors. Some require standard crimper tools and others require a crimper made specifically for a particular brand or style of connector.

Twisted-pair (TP) wiring, such as Cat 5 and Cat 5e, is terminated with an 8-pin RJ-45 connector using a method called punch down or using a crimper tool. The punch-down process of terminating twisted-pair cabling involves the use of a tool designed for the 110-style block, which is the type most commonly associated with data networking and TP cable. Punch-down connections use an insulation displacement connector (IDC) that penetrates the insulation of each wire to create a contact.

A formal test procedure that incorporates the TIA/EIA TSB-67, the Transmission Performance Specifications for Field-Testing of Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cabling Systems (TSB-67 for short), and TSB-95, which provides additional test parameters for Cat 5 wiring, should be used to test all structured wiring cable installed for use with a data network. The TSB-95 standards specify the following standard testing procedures: attenuation test, length test, near-end crosstalk test (NEXT), and wire-map test.

The distribution panel provides the interconnectivity of the structured wiring system, along with versatility and flexibility. It also provides for a single access point for all of the various home technology systems and communication services integrated into a home.

The distribution panel should be mounted on a wall where it is a safe distance from possible interference sources and at about eye-level. All cabling in the distribution panel should be labeled about 6 to 10 inches below where the cable enters the cabinet.

Cable terminations made at the distribution panel mirror those made at the outlet end of each cable. A distribution panel may also connect to other distribution devices, such as hubs, demarcs, and other service devices. Typically, these connections are made using patch cords.

When installing the AC power for the distribution panel, the appropriate national, state, and local electrical codes must be followed.

A patch panel can be used as a distribution device for data, telephone, and audio cabling. Data and voice cables are attached to the back of a patch panel jack using a 110-style punch-down connection.

Questions

  1. What type of connector is commonly used to terminate speaker wire?

    1. RCA
    2. Type-F
    3. Binding post
    4. Spade
  2. When speaker wire is attached to a setscrew connection, how should the wire be wrapped around the post?

    1. Counter-clockwise, 360 degrees
    2. Counter-clockwise, 180 degrees
    3. Clockwise, 360 degrees
    4. Clockwise, 180 degrees
  3. What is the most commonly used connector for terminating coaxial cabling?

    1. F-type
    2. RJ-45
    3. RG-6
    4. RG-59
  4. Twisted-pair cabling for a data network is terminated with what type of connector?

    1. RJ-11
    2. RJ-45
    3. IEEE 1394
    4. EIA/TIA 568
  5. What termination method is used to terminate twisted-pair cabling at the distribution panel?

    1. 66-style
    2. 110-style
    3. EIA/TIA 570
    4. Telco standard
  6. How far should each wire pair be untwisted when terminating twisted-pair cabling?

    1. -inch
    2. -inch
    3. -inch
    4. 1-inch
  7. Which standard should be used when terminating twisted-pair cabling for residential data networking use?

    1. IEEE 802.3
    2. EIA/TIA 568a
    3. EIA/TIA 568b
    4. EIA/TIA 570
  8. Which of the following EIA/TIA standards specifies transmission performance standards testing UTP cable?

    1. 568a
    2. 568b
    3. TSB 67
    4. 570
  9. Which of the following tests measures how much of a transmitted signal is present on other wire pairs in the same cable?

    1. Attenuation
    2. Length
    3. NEXT
    4. Wire-map
  10. At what level should a distribution panel be installed?

    1. Floor level
    2. Side-by-side with an electrical panel
    3. Eye-level
    4. Shoulder-height

Answers

  1. C. Binding post. RCA connectors are commonly used to interconnect audio source devices; Type-F connectors are used with coaxial cabling; and a spade connector is used to connect directly to a speaker.
  2. D. Clockwise, 180 degrees. Wrapping the wire completely around the post may cause damage to the wire when the setscrew is tightened.
  3. A. F-type. The other choices are a TP connector and two types of coaxial cabling, respectively.
  4. B. RJ-45. An RJ-11 connector is used with standard telephone (2 wire) connections; IEEE 1394 is commonly known as FireWire; and EIA/TIA 568 is a business environment cabling standard.
  5. B. 110-style. This punch-down type block is used to connect TP cable to RJ-45 connectors as well as distribution panels and patch panels.
  6. B. -inch. This amount of stripping provides adequate insertion into an IDC or snap-on connection.
  7. B. EIA/TIA 568a. This is the cabling standard recommended by the residential data network cabling standard, EIA/TIA 570.
  8. C. TSB 67. Along with TSB 95, these are the testing standards required by EIA/TIA 568 and 570.
  9. C. NEXT. This stands for near-end crosstalk, a test to see if pairs or wires in the same cable are interfering with a signal transmitted on a wire in the same cable.
  10. C. Eye-level. This level provides for easy access and work inside the panel.






HTI+ Home Technology Integrator & CEDIA Installer I All-In-One Exam Guide
HTI+ Home Technology Integrator & CEDIA Installer I All-In-One Exam Guide
ISBN: 72231327
EAN: N/A
Year: 2003
Pages: 300
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