Principles of Surgery, Companion Handbook - page 49

Editor-in-Chief

SEYMOUR I. SCHWARTZ, M.D.
Distinguished Alumni Professor and Chair
Department of Surgery
University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester, New York

Associate Editors

G. TOM SHIRES, M.D.
Professor of Surgery
Director, Trauma Institute
University of Nevada School of Medicine
Las Vegas, Nevada

FRANK C. SPENCER, M.D.
Professor and Chairman
Department of Surgery
New York University Medical Center
New York, New York

JOHN M. DALY, M.D.
Lewis Atterbury Stimson Professor and Chairman
Department of Surgery
Cornell University Medical College
New York, New York

JOSEF E. FISCHER, M.D.
Christian R. Holmes Professor and Chairman
Department of Surgery
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Cincinnati, Ohio

AUBREY C. GALLOWAY, M.D.
Professor of Surgery
Director of Surgical Research
New York University Medical Center
New York, New York

Principles of Surgery Companion Handbook

FIGURE 1-1 Three major classes of membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters. Receptor Kinases: Mediators such as insulin bind receptors that activate the tyrosine kinase pathway that leads to phosphorylation of proteins. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Some hormones, such as the peptides, neurotransmitters, and prostaglandins, bind to receptors (R) coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding or G proteins (G). The G proteins in turn activate effectors (E), which may be enzymes such as adenylate cyclase. G proteins coupled to adenylate cyclase increase cAMP. If G protein is coupled to phospholipase C, the active second messenger products are inositol triphospate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 stimulates the release of free calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. The free calcium then binds to calmodulin to activate a specific phosphorylase kinase. DAG (not shown) remains in the membrane, where it activates protein kinase C, which opens a membrane channel for calcium entry. This activity, resulting from the initial activation of G proteins, may be coupled with the activity of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels. (From: Habener JF: Genetic control of hormone formation, in Wilson JD, Foster DW: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1992, chap 4, with permission.)

Books@Ovid
Copyright © 1998 McGraw-Hill
Seymour I. Schwartz
Principles of Surgery Companion Handbook

Principles of Surgery Companion Handbook

FIGURE 1-2 Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamic hormones that regulate their secretion. Somatostatin and dopamine are endogenous inhibitors. (From: Reichlin S: Neuroendocrine control of pituitary function, in Besser GM, Cudworth AG (eds): Clinical Endocrinology: An Illustrated Text. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1987, with permission.)

Books@Ovid
Copyright © 1998 McGraw-Hill
Seymour I. Schwartz
Principles of Surgery Companion Handbook

Principles of Surgery Companion Handbook

FIGURE 1-3 Inflammatory mediators that modulate hepatic acute phase reactants synthesis in humans. E = enhancement of activity; OSM = oncostatin M; CNTF = ciliary neurotrophic factor; ApoAl = apolipoprotein Al. (From: Steel DM, Whitehead AS: The major acute phase reactants: C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A protein. Immunol Today 15:81, 1994, with permission.)

Books@Ovid
Copyright © 1998 McGraw-Hill
Seymour I. Schwartz
Principles of Surgery Companion Handbook