Answers and Explanations


Answers and Explanations

A1:

Answer D is correct. Contract closeout and administrative closure are the only two processes in project closing. Answer A is incorrect because schedule control and quality control are controlling processes. Answer B is incorrect because information distribution and contract administration are executing processes. Answer C is incorrect because activity definition and activity sequencing are processes within project planning.

A2:

Answer B is correct. If there are such formal procedures required during contract closeout, they can typically be found in the contract terms and conditions. Answer A is incorrect because the project plan is used to document planning assumptions, decisions, scope, cost, and schedule. Answer C is not correct because the WBS defines and organizes the total work scope. Answer D is incorrect because the charter formally authorizes the existence of a project.

A3:

Answer C is correct. A procurement audit is a review of each process step within the procurement management activity with the key objective of improving this process on future procurement initiatives within the same organization. Answers A and B are incorrect because the goal is not to find or expose errors on the vendor's part. Therefore, Answer D is incorrect as well.

A4:

Answer D is correct. Answers A and B are both correct because performance measurement documentation and product documentation are both inputs to administrative closure. Answer C is an example of other project records and therefore is also correct as an input.

A5:

Answer B is correct. Lessons learned are an output of administrative closure, and are necessary no matter how large or small the project is.

A6:

Answer B is correct. A project risk log is not considered by the PMBOK to be contract documentation. Answers A, C, and D are considered contract documentation and should be reviewed during contract closeout.

A7:

Answer A is correct. A contract is closed when the contract work has been completed or terminated. Answer B is incorrect because administrative closure is performed at the end of every phase of a project. Answer C is incorrect because administrative closure is necessary on all projects. Contract closure only occurs for projects that have contracts.

A8:

Answer C is correct. Project reports and presentations are tools and techniques in administrative closure. Answer A is incorrect because control charts and Pareto diagrams are tools and techniques used in quality control. Answer B is incorrect because flowcharting and trend analysis are also tools and techniques in quality control. Answer D is incorrect because again, trend analysis and inspection are tools and techniques used in quality control.

A9:

Answer C is correct. Lessons learned are not an output of contract administration. The outputs of contract administration are correspondence, contract changes, and payment requests. Therefore Answers A, B, and D are outputs of contract administration and therefore incorrect answers to this question.

A10:

Answer D is correct. Project archives, project closure, and lessons learned are all outputs of administrative closure. Rework is an output of quality control.

A11:

Answer B is correct. It must be verified that the work product meets the specifications. Answer A is incorrect because the project plan is verified during the project plan development phase.

A12:

Answer A is correct. Before a project can officially close, the customer must accept the product of the project. Answer B is a part of the closing process, but even if lessons learned have been documented, the project can remain open. Answer C is incorrect because a team obviously doesn't need a new project, and therefore Answer D is incorrect as well.

A13:

Answer C is correct. The two outputs of contract closeout are the contract file and formal acceptance and closure. Answer A is incorrect because contract documentation is an input to contract closeout. Answer B is incorrect because procurement audits are a tool and technique in contract closeout.

A14:

Answer B is correct. ROI reports are financial reports that are not a part of administrative closure. Answer A is an input to administrative closure. Answer C is an output of administrative closure. Answer D is also an output of administrative closure.

A15:

Answer C is correct. The goal of the procurement audit is to identify successes and failures. Through this audit, your organization can determine which subcontractors to work with again on future projects.

A16:

Answer A is the best answer.

A17:

Answer C is correct. The newly appointed closing manager will be able to contact the previous project manager with any technical questions. The project manager should be available for any customer meetings.

A18:

Answer D is correct. It is quite possible that if administrative closure is saved until project completion, project archives or records could be lost, or useful information could be lost. Each phase of a project should be closed.

A19:

Answer B is correct. During the closing phase, the emphasis is typically on the transfer of information. As team members leave, information is transitioned to the customer or project owner.

A20:

Answer A is correct. After you receive formal acceptance of the project, you should then distribute this formal acceptance documentation to the appropriate stakeholders, as previously determined.

A21:

Answer D is correct. The person or organization responsible for contract administration should provide the seller with formal written notice that the contract has been completed. This is usually defined in the contract.

A22:

Answer A is correct. The PMBOK specifically states that early termination of a contract is a special case of contract closeout.

A23:

Answer B is correct. The statement of work is not included in the PMBOK's definition of contract documentation. The PMBOK defines contract documentation as including, but not limited to, the contract itself along with all supporting schedules, requested and approved contract changes, any seller-developed technical documentation, seller performance reports, financial documents such as invoices and payment records, and the results of any contract-related inspections.

A24:

Answer D is correct. Both the contract file and formal acceptance and closure are outputs of contract closeout. Contract documentation is an input to contract closeout.

A25:

Answer D is correct. Procurement audits are a tool and technique to use during contract closeout. Answers A and B are tools and techniques for solicitation. Answer C is a tool and technique for administrative closure.

A26:

Answer B is correct. Procurement audits are not documents that need to be reviewed while closing out project contracts. However, you should review the contract itself, and invoice and payment records.

A27:

Answer C is correct. A performance review can be utilized to determine the successes and failures of a project.

A28:

Answer A is correct. Variance analysis involves comparing actual project results to planned or expected results. Trend analysis involves examining project results over time to determine if performance is improving.

A29:

Answer A is correct. There is a great deal of uncertainty in initiating. As a project progresses through the different phases, the degree of uncertainty decreases.

A30:

Answer A is correct. A PMIS stands for a project management information system. The PMBOK strongly supports the use of historical project information.

A31:

Answer C is correct. EV, also called the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP), is the value of the work actually completed.

A32:

Answer D is correct. EV AC is equal to CV, the cost variance. In Answer A, the SPI is equal to EV/PV. In Answer B, the CPI is equal to EV/AC. And finally, in Answer C, SV is equal to EV PV.

A33:

Answer D is correct. Performance measurement documentation, product documentation, and other project records are all inputs to administrative closure. Project archives are an output of administrative closure.

A34:

Answer B is correct. The PMBOK states that product documentation is all documents produced to describe the product of the project (plans, specifications, technical documentation, drawings, electronic files, and so forth).

A35:

Answer C is correct. This set of indexed project records should contain all project documents, communications, financial records, and other data.

A36:

Answer A is correct. The person in charge of contract administration should let you know in writing that the contract has been closed.

A37:

Answer B is correct. The PMBOK defines the three inputs to administrative closure to be performance measurement documentation, product documentation, and other project records.

A38:

Answer D is correct. The PMBOK defines EAC as a forecast of most likely total project costs based on project performance and risk quantification.

A39:

Answer C is correct. Both positive and negative lessons learned should be documented throughout a project.

A40:

Answer C is correct. Schedule problems cause most conflicts in the final days of a project. Any slippage in the timeline will become very apparent at this time.

A41:

Answer C is correct. The PV is the originally scheduled project cost, or baseline.

A42:

Answer A is correct. The PMBOK specifically says that employee skills in the staff pool database should be updated to reflect new skills and proficiency increases.

A43:

Answer D is correct. The PMBOK specifically states that a project or phase, after either achieving its objectives or being terminated for other reasons, requires closure.

A44:

Answer B is correct. Administrative closure does not include the activity of staffing the project's team members on new assignments. However, it does include collecting project records, archiving project information, and documenting all lessons learned.

A45:

Answer A is correct. Each phase of a project should be closed in all projects, not only lengthier ones. It's also true that lessons learned are documented and project records are collected in this process.

A46:

Answer C is correct. The PMBOK specifically states that contract closeout is similar to administrative closure in that it involves both product verification and administrative closeout.

A47:

Answer B is correct. Procurement audits are a tool and technique used in contract closeout. Answer A is a tool and technique used in contract administration. Answer C is an input to contract closeout. Answer D is an output to contract closeout.

A48:

Answer D is correct. This is what the PMBOK defines to be formal acceptance and closure, which is an output of contract closeout.

A49:

Answer A is correct. Such a checklist is a tool and technique for risk identification as described in the PMBOK. It can be formulated by using lessons learned from previous projects and other historical information.

A50:

Answer C is correct. The two processes in the closing process group are administrative closure (within the project communications management knowledge area) and contract closeout (in the project procurement management knowledge area).

A51:

Answer A is correct. Startup is not one of the process groups. The five Project Management process groups are initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.

A52:

Answer D is correct. All answers listed are Project Management knowledge areas. The nine Project Management knowledge areas are integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resource management, communications management, risk management, and procurement management.

A53:

Answer B is correct. Contract closeout falls within the project procurement management knowledge group.

A54:

Answer C is correct. Contract changes are an output of contract administration. Answer A is an input to contract closeout. Answer B is a tool and technique utilized in contract closeout. Answer D is an output of contract closeout.

A55:

Answer D is correct. A procurement audit is a tool and technique used during contract closeout. The PMBOK defines it as a review of the procurement process from procurement planning through contract administration.

A56:

Answer A is correct. Contract closeout and administrative closure are closing processes.

A57:

Answer B is correct. Project archives should be kept for all projects, and are an output of the administrative closure process.

A58:

Answer A is correct. Project reports are a tool and technique used in administrative closure. The three inputs to administrative closure are performance measurement documentation, product documentation, and other project records.

A59:

Answer B is correct. AC was previously called ACWP, the actual cost of work performed. CV is cost variance, EV is earned value, and PV is planned value.

A60:

Answer A is correct. Project closure is an output of administrative closure, as are project archives and lessons learned. Answers B and C are tools and techniques used during administrative closure. Answer D is an input to administrative closure.

A61:

Answer D is correct. Earned value involves the calculation of PV (planned value), AC (actual cost), and EV (previously called the budgeted cost of work performed, or BCWP).

A62:

Answer C is correct. The SPI is an index utilized to show how much of the originally scheduled work has been accomplished at a specific point in time.

A63:

Answer B is correct. Performance reports are an output of performance reporting. Performance measurement documentation is an input to administrative closure. Project reports are a tool and technique used during administrative closure. Project archives are an output of administrative closure.

A64:

Answer C is correct. The CPI (cost performance index) is earned value divided by actual cost.

A65:

Answer C is correct. Administrative closure falls within the communications managementProject Management knowledge area.