RIP

RIP is a fairly old Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), but it is still deployed in many networks. It is typically used in small and homogeneous networks. RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol, and it is defined in RFC 1058, "Routing Information Protocol." Its second version is defined in RFC 2453, "RIP Version 2."

RIP uses broadcast or multicast packetsdepending on the versionto communicate with its neighbors and exchange routing information. It uses the hop-count methodology to calculate its metric. Hop count is the number of routing devices that the packets forwarded by a router or a Cisco ASA (in this case) will traverse. RIP has a limit of 15 hops. A route to a network that is directly connected to the Cisco ASA has a metric of 0. However, a route with a metric reaching or exceeding 16 is considered unreachable.

Two versions of the RIP routing protocol are available (Cisco ASA supports both versions):

  • RIP version 1 (RIPv1) Does not support classless interdomain routing (CIDR) and variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs). VLSMs enable routing protocols to define different subnet masks for the same major network. For example, 10.0.0.0 is a Class A network. Its mask is 255.0.0.0. VLSM provides the ability to divide this network into smaller segments (i.e., 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, etc.) Because RIPv1 does not support VLSM, no subnet mask information is present in its routing updates. RIP uses different techniques, such as holddowns, count-to-infinity, split horizon, and poison reverse, to prevent loops.
  • RIP version 2 (RIPv2) Supports CIDR and VLSMs. RIPv2 also converges faster than its predecessor. It also supports peer or neighbor authentication (plain-text or MD5 authentication), which provides additional security.

Configuring RIP

The configuration of the Cisco ASA is simple, but somewhat limited. Figure 6-3 illustrates the first example topology.

Figure 6-3. Basic RIP Configuration

In the example shown in Figure 6-3, the Cisco ASA is connected to a router running RIPv2. This router is learning routes from two other routers. Subsequently, routes to all these networks are being advertised by the router connected to the Cisco ASA. The Cisco ASA is also injecting a default route to the inside router. Example 6-1 shows the necessary commands to configure RIPv2 on the Cisco ASA and to advertise a default route to the internal router.

Example 6-1. Basic RIP Configuration

Chicago# configure terminal

Chicago(config)# rip inside passive version 2

Chicago(config)# rip inside default version 2

Chicago(config)# exit

The rip command enables RIP on the Cisco ASA. The interface on which RIP will be enabled is also specified. The desired result is to learn the internal routes and advertise default route information. To do this, the default keyword is used. The version keyword specifies what RIP version is used. With the passive keyword, the Cisco ASA interface listens for RIP routing packets and uses that information to update its routing table, but it does not advertise any routing updates through the specified interface.

Note

Use the clear configure rip command to remove all the RIP related commands from the Cisco ASA.

The example shown in Figure 6-4 demonstrates how RIPv2 and RIPv1 are configured on two separate interfaces (inside and outside, in this example).

Figure 6-4. Configuring RIPv1 and RIPv2 on Two Different Interfaces

In the example shown in Figure 6-4, the inside interface is configured for RIPv2, as previously explained. Additionally, the Cisco ASA is learning RIPv1 routes on its outside interface from the Internet router. The commands needed for this configuration are shown in Example 6-2.

Example 6-2. Configuring RIPv1 and RIPv2 on Two Different Interfaces

Chicago# configure terminal

Chicago(config)# rip inside passive version 2

Chicago(config)# rip inside default version 2

Chicago(config)# rip outside passive version 1

Chicago(config)# exit

RIPv1 does not support authentication. Cisco ASA supports two modes of RIPv2 authentication: plain-text authentication and Message Digest 5 (MD5) authentication.

Tip

A best practice is to use MD5 instead of plain-text authentication, because MD5 authentication provides a higher level of security.

RIP authentication using MD5 is added in Figure 6-5. Example 6-3 shows the necessary commands to make this possible.

Figure 6-5. RIPv2 MD5 Authentication

 

Example 6-3. Configuring RIPv2 MD5 Authentication

Chicago# configure terminal

Chicago(config)# rip inside default version 2 authentication md5 cisco 1

Chicago(config)# exit

The word cisco is the MD5 password in this example. The number 1 is the RIPv2 authentication key identification value. This key ID can be configured with a number from 0 to 255, but it must match the one in use on the peer router.

Verifying the Configuration

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the show route command displays the routing table. With this command, you can also verify that the correct routes are being learned by the Cisco ASA via RIP. Example 6-4 shows the output of the Cisco ASA routing table while learning several routes via RIP from its peers.

Example 6-4. Output of the Routing Table Showing Routes Learned via RIP

Chicago# show route

R 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 209.165.200.226, outside

C 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 is directly connected, inside

R 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 [1/0] via 192.168.10.2, inside

R 192.168.13.0 255.255.255.0 [2/0] via 192.168.10.2, inside

C 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 is directly connected, outside

Notice the letter R or C by each route entry. The letter R indicates that the route is learned via RIP; C indicates that it is directly connected.

Troubleshooting RIP

This section includes several commands and techniques that you can use while trouble-shooting different issues that may arise throughout your deployment of RIP. A number of scenarios are provided to exemplify these troubleshooting techniques.

Scenario 1: RIP Version Mismatch

Using the topology illustrated in Figure 6-5, the internal router was intentionally configured with the incorrect RIP version. The Cisco ASA was configured with RIPv2 on the inside interface (as previously shown) and the internal router was configured with RIPv1. The output of the show route command does not display any routes learned via RIP. Example 6-5 shows the output of this command.

Example 6-5. Output of show route Command Missing RIP Routes

Chicago# show route

C 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 is directly connected, inside

C 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 is directly connected, outside

The command debug rip is used as a troubleshooting tool for this problem, as demonstrated in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6. Output of debug rip Showing Incorrect RIP Version During Negotiation

Chicago# debug rip

debug rip enabled at level 1

Chicago# RIP: interface inside sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9

RIP: received packet from interface inside [pif=2] (192.168.10.2:520)

RIP: interface inside received v1 update from 192.168.10.2

In the highlighted line, the router sends the incorrect RIP version. The solution to this problem is to configure RIP version 2 on the internal router.

Scenario 2: RIP Authentication Mismatch

The topology shown in Figure 6-5 is also used in this example. The internal router and the Cisco ASA were configured to perform RIP authentication using MD5. The MD5 password was configured incorrectly in the Cisco ASA. The router is configured with an MD5 password of cisco and the Cisco ASA was configured with cisco123. Example 6-7 shows the output of debug ip rip on the router, which shows that there is a problem with MD5 authentication.

Example 6-7. Output of debug ip rip on the Router While the Incorrect MD5 Password Was Configured

Router# debug ip rip

2d09h: RIP: received packet with MD5 authentication

2d09h: RIP: ignored v2 packet from 192.168.10.1 (invalid authentication)

This message also appears if the incorrect authentication method or mode is selected.

Scenario 3: Multicast or Broadcast Packets Blocked

RIPv1 uses broadcast packets and RIPv2 uses multicast packets, as previously discussed. If broadcast or multicast packets (respectively) are blocked, the Cisco ASA will never be able to successfully establish a RIP neighbor relationship with its peers. The debug rip command is also useful to troubleshoot this problem. Example 6-8 shows the output of debug rip while RIPv2 multicast packets were being blocked.

Example 6-8. Output of debug rip While Multicast Packets Are Being Dropped or Blocked

Chicago# debug rip

debug rip enabled at level 1

RIP: interface inside sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9

RIP: interface inside sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9

RIP: interface inside sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9

RIP: interface inside sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9

As you can see from this example, the Cisco ASA is sending the RIPv2 packets to the address 224.0.0.9 without receiving anything back from its peers. You will also see this behavior when RIP is not enabled on any routing device on that segment.

Tip

You can also ping the multicast address of 224.0.0.9 to verify that packets are not blocked.

 

Scenario 4: Correct Configuration and Behavior

It is impossible to troubleshoot a problem if you are not familiar with the behavior of the device(s) to determine whether or not they are configured correctly. Example 6-9 includes the output of debug rip when all devices are configured correctly. Again, the Cisco ASA is configured to support RIPv1 on its outside interface; support RIPv2 on its inside interface; broadcast a default route to the inside router; and use MD5 authentication for RIPv2 learned routes.

Example 6-9. Output of debug ripCorrect Configuration

Chicago# debug rip

Chicago# RIP: received packet from interface inside [pif=2] (192.168.10.2:520)

RIP: interface inside received v2 update from 192.168.10.2

RIP: update contains 2 routes

RIP: interface inside sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9

The highlighted line shows that a RIPv2 update was received on the Cisco ASA and it contained two routes from the router 192.168.10.2. Example 6-10 shows the complete routing table, showing the routes learned via both peers.

Example 6-10. Routing TableCorrect Configuration

Chicago# show route

R 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 209.165.200.226, outside

C 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0 is directly connected, inside

R 192.168.20.0 255.255.255.0 [1/0] via 192.168.10.2, inside

R 192.168.13.0 255.255.255.0 [2/0] via 192.168.10.2, inside

C 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224 is directly connected, outside






Cisco Asa(c) All-in-one Firewall, IPS, And VPN Adaptive Security Appliance
Cisco ASA: All-in-One Firewall, IPS, and VPN Adaptive Security Appliance
ISBN: 1587052091
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 231
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