No endorsement of any product mentioned in this book is
Macintosh and PowerBook are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other
BBEdit and TextWrangler are trademarks of Bare Bones Software, Inc.
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Alpha and OpenVMS are trademarks and Compaq is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation in the US and other countries, which later merged with Hewlett-Packard Company.
Connectix and Connectix Virtual PC are trademarks of Connectix Corporation, many of whose products were
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Digital, PDP, and VAX are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation, which was acquired by Compaq Computer Corporation, which later merged with Hewlett-Packard Company.
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System/36, System/38, and System/360 are trademarks and AS/400, IBM, PowerPC, and ThinkPad are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation.
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Simics is a trademark and Virtutech is a registered trademark of Virtutech AB.
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Chapter 1. Architecture and Implementation
Computer science often distinguishes between abstraction and implementation—i.e., between the general and the particular. We may examine any computer system at two major levels: its
In the first decades of the history of computers, the sporadic emergence of new ideas and new companies resulted in a jumbled succession of disparate approaches to computer design. The design of the IBM
series by Amdahl and his team, however,