You want to set up Network Address Translation on your router.
In the simplest NAT configuration, all of your internal devices use the same external global address as the router's external interface:
Router#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#access-list 15 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 15 interface FastEthernet0/0 overload Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/2 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface Ethernet0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.5 255.255.255.252 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#end Router#
In this example, the router will rewrite that address of all of the internal devices whose IP addresses are in the range 192.168.0.0/16. When these internal devices connect to devices on the outside of the network, they will all appear to have the same source address as the external interface of the router, 172.16.1.5.
This example actually includes two internal interfaces and one external. You designate the internal interfaces with the ip nat inside command. You can have as many inside interfaces as you like:
Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside
You also need to designate at least one outside interface using the command ip nat outside. There can be several outside interfaces, but this can be very difficult to control, so it is usually not recommended:
Router(config-if)#interface Ethernet0/0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside
You configure the actual translation action with the line:
Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 15 interface FastEthernet0/0 overload
This tells the router to translate the source addresses of any internal devices that match access-list number 15. The router will translate the source addresses of all of these devices to the address that is configured on the interface FastEthernet0/0, which is the outside interface.
The overload keyword is actually assumed here, so if you leave it off, the router will automatically put it in. This option tells the router that many internal devices can use the same global address simultaneously. Since the router itself uses this address, if even a single internal address translates to this address, it is already overloaded. We will explain this option in more detail in Recipe 21.2.
To help explain what the access-list on this command does, we will change it so that it includes every address in the range except one:
Router(config)#access-list 15 deny 192.168.1.101 Router(config)#access-list 15 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255
Now if you make a connection from the excluded address, 192.168.1.101, the only difference is that the router will not rewrite this internal address. Instead, this address will appear unchanged on the outside.
NAT can be quite confusing because people usually think that there is some firewall function associated with it. There is not. If you exclude one device from your NAT access-list, as we just discussed, anybody on the outside of the network will be able to connect to this internal device by its real address. But there is nothing to prevent an inbound packet from reaching a particular internal device if the person on the outside knows the real internal address and can route to it. Further, NAT by itself doesn't do any firewall functions, such as UDP or TCP port filtering.