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This standard provides minimum requirements for the preparation and content of SCM plans. SCM plans document the
According to this standard the content of an SCM plan should be as
Introduction . Describes the plan’s purpose, scope of application, key terms, and references.
SCM management . This identifies the responsibilities and authorities for accomplishing the planned activities. (Who?)
SCM activities . This identifies all activities to be performed in applying to the project. (What?)
SCM schedules . This identifies the required coordination of SCM activities with the other activities in the project. (When?)
SCM resources . This identifies tools and physical and human resources required for execution of the plan. (How?)
SCM plan maintenance . This identifies how the plan will be kept current while in effect.
This guide describes the application of CM of software engineering projects. The guide serves three groups of people: software developers, software managers, and those responsible for the preparation of SCM plans. Software CM consists of two major aspects: planning and implementation. This guide focuses on SCM planning and provides broad perspectives for the understanding of SCM.
Software developers can use this standard to determine how CM can be used to support the software engineering process. Management can determine how the SCM plan can be adjusted to the needs and resources of a project.
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For different engineering domains, there are different standards and models for different PLCs. Some of the standards address the life cycles of systems, and others address a particular domain (e.g., software). Life cycle standards are closely
This standard provides a common framework for covering the life cycle of a system. This life cycle span is from the
The standard defines a set of processes and terminology. These processes can apply at any level in the hierarchy of a system structure. The standard also provides processes that support the definition, control, and improvement of the life cycle processes used in an organization or project.
The system life cycle processes are:
Agreement processes . The process specifies the requirements for the establishment of agreements with organizational entities, internal and external to the organization.
. This process
Project processes . This process provides the establishment and evolution of project plans, to assess actual achievement and progress in relation to the plans and to control the execution of the project through fulfillment.
. The process defines the requirements for a system to transform the requirements into an effective product, to permit consistent reproduction of the product where necessary, to use the product to provide the required services, to sustain the provision of those services, and to dispose of the product when it is
This standard is related to ISO/IEC 12207 Information Technology— Software Life Cycle Processes—Amendment 1 .
This standard covers the life cycle of software from conceptualization of ideas through retirement and consists of processes for acquiring and supplying software products and services. The standard may be adjusted for an individual organization, project, or application. It may also be used when software is a stand-alone entity or an embedded or integral part of the total system.
The standard categorizes all life cycle processes into three main groups: primary life cycle, supporting life cycle, and organizational life cycle.
The primary life cycle processes are defined in the standard as
Acquisition process. The process begins with the initiation of the need to acquire a system. The process continues with the preparation and issue of a request for proposal, selection of a supplier, and management of the acquisition process through the acceptance of the system.
Supply process . The process may be initiated either by a decision to prepare a proposal to answer a request for a proposal or by signing and entering into a contract with a vendor to provide the system. The process continues with the determination of procedures and resources needed to manage and assure the project software product.
. This process contains activities and
Operation process . The process contains operator activities and tasks such as operation of the software product and operational support to users.
Maintenance process. This process contains activities and tasks for the maintainer. The process is started when the software product undergoes modifications due to a problem or the need for improvement or adaptation. The process includes migration and ends with the retirement of the software product.
To support the primary life cycle processes, there are eight different processes supporting life cycles. They are:
Documentation process. This process records information produced by a life cycle process or activity.
The process applies administrative and technical procedures to identify and define software items in a system; control modifications and releases of the items; record and report the status and modification
Quality assurance process
. This process provides assurance that the software products and processes in the PLC
Verification process. The process provides activities to determine whether the software products of an activity fulfill the requirements or conditions.
Validation process . This process provides activities to determine whether the requirements and the final as-built system or software product fulfill its specific intended use.
Joint review process
. The process
Audit process . The process determines compliance with the requirements, plans, and contract.
Problem resolution process
. The process analyzes and resolves any problems
The standard also identifies organizational life cycle process. The activities and tasks in an organizational process are the responsibility of the organization using that process. The organizational processes are:
. The manager is responsible for product management, project management, and task management for
Infrastructure process . The purpose is to establish and maintain the infrastructure needed for any other process, including hardware, software, tools, techniques, standards, and facilities for development, operation, or maintenance.
Improvement process . The purpose is to establish, assess, measure, control, and improve a software life cycle process.
Training process. This process provides the required trained personnel.
Normative references are found in Table 12.5.
Dictionary of Computer Science
Information Technology—Vocabulary—Part 1: Fundamental Terms
Information Technology—Vocabulary—Part 20: System Development
Quality Management and Quality Assurance—Vocabulary
Quality Systems—Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation, and
Information Technology—Software Product Evaluation—Quality Characteristics and Guidelines for Their Use
ISO 9000 Part 3 has a long title, Guidelines for the Application of ISO 9001:1994 to the Development, Supply, Installation and Maintenance of Computer Software . It provides guidance in applying the requirements of ISO 9001:1994, in which computer software design, development, installation, and maintenance are treated together as an element of a commercial contract entered into by a supplier, as a product available for a market sector or as software embedded in a hardware product.
The quality system requirements are:
This is to define the quality policy of the organization and to identify and ensure the availability of the resources required to
Quality system. This is to develop and describe a quality system and to implement procedures in accordance with the quality policy it describes.
Contract review . This is to develop and document procedures to coordinate the review of software development contracts.
Design control. This is to establish and maintain documented procedures to control and verify the design of the product to ensure the satisfaction of the specified requirements.
Document and data control. This is to develop procedures to control all documents and data relating to the requirements. CM procedures should be used to implement document and data control.
This is to develop and maintain procedures to ensure that purchased products conform to specified requirements. These procedures should control the selection of
Control of customer-supplied product. This is to establish and maintain documented procedures for the control of verification, storage, and maintenance of customer-supplied products.
Product identification and traceability. This is to develop a procedure for identifying the product during its life cycle. A CM system may provide this capability.
Process control. This is to identify and plan the production, installation, and servicing processes that directly affect quality and ensure that these processes are executed under controlled conditions.
Inspection and testing. This is to develop procedures for inspection and testing activities to verify the satisfaction of the product requirements specified. If third-party products are to be included, procedures shall be developed for the verification of such products in accordance with the requirements of the contract.
Control of inspection, measuring, and test equipment. This is to develop procedures for the control, calibration, and maintenance of inspection, measuring, and testing equipment.
Corrective and preventive action. This is to develop procedures for implementing corrective and preventive action.
Handling, storage, packaging, preservation, and delivery.
This is to develop and document procedures for the handling, storage, packaging, preservation, and delivery of the products of the organization. In addition, this is to develop product handling
Control of quality records.
This is to identify and define the quality information to be collected. It is also to develop a quality
Training. This is to develop quality-training procedures.
Servicing. This is to establish and maintain procedures for performing servicing procedures and verifying and reporting that the servicing meets the specified requirements.
Statistical techniques. This is to select the statistical techniques to be used to establish, control, and verify process capabilities and product characteristics.
From this comprehensive list, we can see that many quality requirements need systematic support for documentation, version management, CM, and requirements management (i.e., just the support provided by PDM and SCM tools).
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