Acceptance of biometrics concept
If the user is
Knowledge of technology and computers in general
If the user is technology literate and comfortable using and exploring new technology, he will be better able to optimize his behavior with the system.
If the user if familiar with the characteristic and how it should be used to optimize security, he will be more able to use the system appropriately. For example, with a
Experience with the specific device being used (and other devices)
Each device has its own way of working and its own user requirements. Users who have used that particular device extensively may feel particularly positive or negative toward it. If a user has been habituated to a certain device, he may use a new device inappropriately.
Environment of use
User stress when using a device can have an influence on the ability to acquire and the quality of an image. Public or private milieus, the presence of a queue, time pressure, and environmental conditions affect overall performance, as will assistance from either a human or an effective interface design.
The transaction's degree of criticality will affect user stress levels and,
Fully understanding the user's role in the performance and acceptance of biometrics requires the utilization of a number of research
 DARPA, "Human ID at a Distance."
 Thalheim, Krissler, and Ziegler.
Developers must work with an iterative design and evaluation process to create a successful biometrics application. Field trials are imperative to fully test the performance and acceptance of any self-service application, as experience with the actual technology can change people's attitudes in either a positive or a negative direction.
Within some application areas, including the financial self-service environment, the potential size of the user base can be extraordinarily large. Even small financial institutions can have millions of customers, and with cross-institution relationships, we must consider the possibility that any biometrics system might ultimately have to be
Developers must take into account a number of design considerations for a biometrics solution, if it is to fully accommodate a wide range of potential users in a
Any person wishing to use a system with biometrics security first must be enrolled. The person's biometrics template must be sampled and stored along with his identification. The difficulty of this task
Enrollment is similar to verification in that the user provides a series of biometrics measurements for the same biometrics artifact. These biometrics measurements are then
The effectiveness of biometrics depends on the quality of the enrollment image; thus, a good enrollment template is key to efficient and accurate verification. It is
An attended enrollment is thus a critical part of a successful solution, as it maintains the integrity of the information stored, provides an opportunity for education and training, and dispels misconceptions. Such enrollment should include:
For example, with fingerprint biometrics, users must understand the importance of the fingerprint core and where it is located on their finger.
For example, users must be told how to use the technology and its limits. This might focus around, for example, accurate placement of the biometrics within the required range.
Users need some understanding of how the software interface will support them if they have not placed their biometrics accurately.
A "trainer" should lead the user through the interaction, and the user should be provided with feedback about how to correct his placement.
Time is needed for the user to explore how to use the system (e.g., the pressure required, positioning the biometrics). This should continue until the user can provide consistent images.
Readers who first learned graphical user interfaces two decades ago might remember a similar situation: extensive training was required at the start, but it soon became superfluous. If biometrics becomes ubiquitous, the population will become habituated to the technology and will no longer need this level of early support. Until then, it is
A biometrics device requires that the user actively participate in, or at least collaborate with, the biometrics system in order for the system to obtain a biometrics measurement. A user might have to provide a fingerprint imagefor example, by placing his finger on a specified device, swiping his finger across a fingerprint reader, or collaborating with a camera-based system in order for it to obtain a good picture of his face or of his iris.
Many factors affect the quality of the data and the appropriateness. For example, a user must apply correct pressure when providing a fingerprint to a capacitive sensor. However, exact pressure varies between individuals depending on their skin. Meanwhile, users must also accurately place their fingerprint core on the device. Overall, the user's interaction with the biometrics device and the feedback provided by the system are crucial for success.
In general, approaches based on external cues (e.g., an indentation where the finger should be placed or a red line against which to position the base of the fingernail) are too general and can create problems resulting from the discrepancies between varied human finger sizes and shape. This is particularly problematic if the user does not understand what goal he is trying to achieve.
It is essential for user
There is currently no biometrics that can be used by everyone in the world, and so the system must consider how it will handle cases where it is not possible to use the biometrics system. As a result, "outliers" and those temporarily excluded from a specific biometrics system must be accommodated without
Exception handling offers an easy bypass to this issue if biometrics authentication is part of a security process.
Extreme examples of "unenrollable" users are those people who do not have the required characteristicfor example, no eyes or no fingers. Conversely, someone with a very manual job may have such poor fingerprint definition that some fingerprint systems will be unable to capture enough of the fingerprint for verification. Still others may find it physically
Because the body changes over time, the statistical algorithms that match the live image with the template must be sufficiently flexible to continually match the two as the body ages. Some systems perform minor updating of the template over time with each successful authentication, and other systems require periodic re-enrollment.
Users' fundamental attitude toward a technology will affect their behavior with that technology. For consumers to adopt biometrics (
Appropriate for a given environment
Filling a perceived need
Not destructive to personal privacy
Further, user acceptance of biometrics varies with the biometrics being used and the application to which it is being applied. Therefore, it is essential to understand user acceptance of specific rather than general situations. Negative factors
There is a general lack of public understanding of how biometrics works. This understanding gap is often
 A. Westin, "Biometrics in the Main Stream: What Does the U.S. Public Think," Privacy and American Business Newsletter 9:8 (Dec. 2002).
A few years ago, there was little perceived need for the addition of biometrics. However, the press coverage around "shoulder surfing" and card skimming has raised worries about PIN security. Meanwhile, terrorist threats have raised even bigger security concerns in general, and biometrics is often thought to be a more secure solution to both issues. It seems that fear of these threats is driving up public acceptance without a corresponding understanding of or experience with the technology: in a recent survey of 1,067 silicon.com readers, 75% believed that biometrics is more secure than traditional security methods. 
 T. Hallett, "Give Me Some Skin: Biometrics Get Thumbs Up," Silicon.com (Jan. 6 , 2004).
On the other hand, many consumers have difficulty believing that some "futuristic" technologies can work well. They think they stand a real chance of being rejected and not getting access, or that the technology may seem intimidating. People do not like rejection; it is embarrassing, particularly if it happens in public. Subsequent attempts to use the biometrics may be affected by the higher level of emotions created by the previous rejection. If a consumer already has a negative attitude toward the technology, any negative interaction will only serve to confirm his negativity.
Usability studies have shown that experience with an actual biometrics device can improve acceptance,  ,  but a system that exhibits poor usability can equally drive acceptance down. Thus, effective user enrollment, training, and lead-through when using the system are key to maintaining usability and thus, user acceptance.
 DARPA, "Human ID at a Distance."
Some users have expressed concerns about the hygiene of touch-based fingerprint devices, and the health risks of more advanced technologies such as iris or
Privacy is a thorny issue that can generate poor user acceptance of biometrics. Any kind of biometrics technology implemented on a national scale raises all sorts of privacy and data protection issues. While there have been cases where user caution has been justified,
it is unclear if such fears are unwarranted. There are a number of ethical concerns
that biometrics advocates claim are unwarranted in general. Currently the technology is not as good as some people believe, and those technology limitations mean that privacy is
 C. Piller, J. Meyer, and T. Gorman, "Criminal Faces in the Crowd Still Elude Hidden ID Cameras," Los Angeles Times Section 1 (Feb. 2, 2001), 1.
 A. Allerman, "Ethical Issues in Biometric Identification," Ethics and Information Technology 5 (2003), 139150.
 J. D. Woodward Jr., "Superbowl Surveillance: Facing Up to Biometrics," Rand Arroyo Centre (2001), 7.
Another aspect of biometrics privacy issues involves cultural or religious concerns. Some people believe that the control and use of any part of the human body is a violation of a basic moral tenet of their civilization, or of their own religious beliefs. Other people worry that giving a biometrics may reveal extremely personal informationfor example, whether an individual has a genetic
Also important is a general concern about the potential misuse of personal data, which would potentially
 J. D. Woodward, "Biometrics: Privacy's Foe or Privacy's Friend?" Proceedings of the IEEE , 85:9 (1997), 14801492.
 W. Grossman, "Ever Feel You're Being Watched?" The Independent (May 14, 2003).
It is not the biometrics concept itself that is seen as a threat to individual rights and privacy, but rather, the potential danger that an unspecified third party would be able to access the data and use it for applications for which the owner had not given permission. This can be controlled by applying preventative measures including encryption and by not storing an actual image.