Hyphenation is the placement of hyphens between syllables in words that don't completely fit at the end of a line of text ‚ a signal to the reader that the word continues on the
Justification is the addition or removal of space between words and/or
If your pages will contain
InDesign offers two hyphenation
If you want to break a particular word differently from the way InDesign would normally break the word, you can place a
in the word. If the word
If you place a discretionary hyphen in a word, InDesign will break the word only at that point (or not break it at all). But you can place multiple discretionary hyphens within a single word; InDesign will use the one that produces the best results.
InDesign uses discretionary hyphens only if you have checked the Hyphenate check box in the Paragraph pane or in the Control palette. If Hyphenate is not checked,
To automatically hyphenate selected paragraphs, all you have to do is check the Hyphenate check box in the Paragraph pane or Control palette. (The Hyphenate check box is displayed only if you choose Show Options from the palette menu.)
If you choose to hyphenate paragraphs, you can control how hyphenation is accomplished via the Hyphenation option in the palette menu. When you choose Hyphenation, the Hyphenation dialog box, shown in Figure 18-5, is displayed.
Figure 18-5: The Hyphenation dialog box.
Here's a brief description of each option:
Hyphenate check box: This is a duplicate of the Hyphenate check box in the Paragraph pane and Control palette. If you didn't check it before opening the Hyphenation dialog box, you can check it here.
Words with at Least Letters: Here, you specify the number of letters in the shortest word you want to hyphenate. For example, if you specify four letters, mama can be hyphenated, but any can't be.
After First Letters:
Here, you specify the minimum number of
Before Last Letters: This field is similar to After First Letters, but it determines the minimum number of characters that can follow a hyphen.
Specify the number of consecutive lines that can be hyphenated in this field. Some designers limit the number of consecutive hyphens to two or three because they believe that too many consecutive hyphens produce an
Hyphenation Zone: This field applies only to nonjustified text and only when the Adobe Single-Line Composer option is selected (in the Paragraph pane's palette menu). A hyphenation point must fall within the distance specified in this field to be used. Otherwise-acceptable hyphenation points that do not fall within the specified hyphenation zone are ignored. You can also use the slider below the field to select a value rather than enter a value in this field.
Hyphenate Capitalized Words:
Select this option to break capitalized words, such as proper
Consider changing the After First Letters hyphenation setting to 2 if you have narrow columns or large text. Although many typographers object to two-letter hyphenation ‚ as in ab-dicate or ra-dar ‚ it often looks better than text with large gaps caused by the reluctance to hyphenate such words. Hyphenation also makes sense for many words that use two-letter prefixes such as in-, re-, and co-.
Although I advocate two-letter hyphenation at the beginning of a word, I prefer three-letter hyphenation at the end (set via Before Last Letters). Except for words ending in
most words don't lend
Regardless of the two- versus three-letter debate, words broken using minimum settings of 1 look
When you're done specifying hyphenation settings in the Hyphenation dialog box, click OK to close the dialog box and return to your document.
You can prevent a particular word from being hyphenated by highlighting it and choosing No Break from the Control palette or from the palette menu of the Character pane (Window ‚ Type & Tables ‚ Character, or z +T or Ctrl+T) or by placing a discretionary hyphen (Shift+ z +- [hyphen] or Ctrl+Shift+- [hyphen]) in front of the first letter.
InDesign provides three options for controlling how justification is achieved: You can
Condense or expand the width of spaces, or spacebands, between words.
Add or remove space between letters.
Condense or expand the width of characters, or glyphs.
The options in the Justification dialog box, shown in Figure 18-6, let you specify the degree to which InDesign will adjust normal word spaces, character spacing, and character width to achieve justification. You access this dialog box via the palette menu in the Control palette or in the Paragraph pane, or by pressing Option+Shift+_ z +J or Ctrl+Alt+Shift+J. Although you can use the Justification controls on selected paragraphs, in most cases you will specify Justification settings when you create style sheets, particularly your body-text style sheets.
Figure 18-6: The Justification dialog box.
Here's a brief description of each option:
Word Spacing: Enter the percentage of a spaceband character that you want to use whenever possible in the Desired field. (The default value is 100%, which uses a font's built-in width.) Enter the minimum acceptable percentage in the Minimum field; enter the maximum acceptable percentage in the Maximum field. The smallest value you can enter is 0%; the largest is 1000%. Some designers are adamant that only word spaces ‚ not letter spaces ‚ should be adjusted when justifying text. Others allow small adjustments to letter spacing as well.
The default value of 0% in this field uses a font's built-in letter spacing. In the Desired field, enter a positive value to add space (in
Glyph Scaling: The default value of 100% uses a character's normal width. In the Desired field, enter a positive value to expand all character widths; enter a negative value to condense character widths. Enter the minimum acceptable percentage in the Minimum field; enter the maximum acceptable percentage in the Maximum field. Some designers adamantly contend that scaling characters is even more unacceptable than letter spacing, while others see no harm in scaling characters, as long as it's kept to a minimum. If you do apply glyph scaling, it's best to keep it to a range of 97 to 103 percent at most.
‚ the space between words ‚ is another important
Here's a design rule I like to follow: The wider the column, the more space you can add between words. This is why books tend to have more word spacing than magazines. Like all other typographic issues, there's a
I suggest 85 percent minimum, 100 percent optimum, and 150 percent maximum for word spacing; and ‚ 5 percent minimum, 0 percent optimum, and 10 percent maximum for letter spacing. I prefer minimum settings that are less than the optimum because they help text fit more easily in narrow columns. These settings work well for most newsletters and magazines output on an imagesetter. At the same time, I usually leave the maximum word spacing at 150 percent.
When specifying values in the Justification dialog box, Minimum values must be smaller than Desired values, which in
If you use the Multi-Line Composer option (explained in the next section) for justified paragraphs, specifying a narrow range between minimum and maximum Word Spacing, Letter Spacing, and Glyph Scaling will
A paragraph's justification settings are applied whether the paragraph is justified or not. However, for nonjustified paragraphs, only the Desired values for Word Spacing, Letter Spacing, and Glyph Scaling are used.
The Auto Leading field in the Justification dialog box lets you specify a custom value for Auto Leading (covered in Chapter 17). In InDesign, this is a
The Paragraph pane's palette menu offers two choices for implementing the hyphenation and justification settings you've established: the Adobe Single-Line Composer and the Adobe Multi-Line Composer. (These are also available in the Justification dialog box covered in the previous section.)
In the past, programs like QuarkXPress and PageMaker have used single-line composition methods to flow text. This method marches line by line through a paragraph and sets each line as well as possible using the applied hyphenation and justification settings. The effect of modifying the spacing of one line on the lines above and below is not
Adjusting word spacing is preferred over hyphenation.
Hyphenation is preferred over glyph scaling.
If spacing must be adjusted, removing space is preferred over adding space.
InDesign's Adobe Multi-Line Composer, which is selected by default, takes a broader approach to composition by looking at several lines at once. If a poorly spaced line can be fixed by adjusting the spacing of a previous line, the Multi-Line Composer will
The evenness of letter spacing and word spacing is the highest priority. The desirability of possible breakpoints is determined by how much they cause word and letter spacing to vary from the Desired settings.
Uneven spacing is preferred to hyphenation. A breakpoint that does not require hyphenation is preferred over one that does.
All possible breakpoints are ranked, and good breakpoints are preferred over bad ones.
The multiline composer is more sophisticated than the single-line option, offering generally better overall spacing since it will sacrifice optimal spacing a bit on one line to prevent really bad spacing on another, something the single-line method does not do.
However, there is one frustration dealing with the multiline composer: When you try to edit text or play with tracking to get rid of an orphan or widow, the multiline composer keeps adjusting the text across several lines, often counteracting your nips and tucks. The single-line composer doesn't do that.