In previous sections, we have seen how
maintenance management will be a complex task in many production
environments. Moreover, maintenance is found to be a key variable
in advanced manufacturing technology environments (Jonsson, 1999).
When maintenance is complex and relevant for a company, how does an
organization prepare for addressing and managing this function
complexity? To answer this question, this section examines ways to
deal with complexity and build organizational
At present, many big corporations consider relationship, product, and process competencies as key factors of their organizational efficiency which also has been a business strategy and management literature topic. Many contributions can be found about the complementarity of cooperative and technological competencies in the literature (Tyler, 2001).
Tidd (1995) describes two organizational
factors that affect a firm's ability to develop and commercialize
new products based on
Pintelon and Gelders (1992) discuss a maintenance management (MM) framework consisting of the following three building blocks:
The first building block is the management
system design. Here, MM is placed in a broader business context
where marketing, finance and operations interact to avoid each
The second building block is maintenance
management decision making: planning and control, includes
decisions the maintenance manager should make at the three levels
of business activity, management of resources and performance
reporting. More technical maintenance
The last building block is called maintenance management toolkit, consisting of statistics tools to model the occurrence of failures in the system, plus OR/OM techniques, and computer support.
Vanneste and Vassenhove (1995) propose an approach
to the maintenance management process consisting of two
Determination of current factory performance
Quality and downtime problem analysis
Effectiveness analysis of alternative solutions
Efficiency analysis of maintenance procedures
Implementing actions and gather data
Monitor actions and process data
Adapt plans or information procedures. In
Wireman (1998) proposes a sequential implementation
of steps to ensure that all functions for maintenance management
are in place: (1) preventive maintenance, (2) inventory and
procurement, (3) work order system, (4) CMMS, (5) technical and
interpersonal training, (6) operational involvement, (7) predictive
maintenance, (8) RCM, (9) TPM, (10) statistical financial
optimization, (11) continuous improvement. The pyramid Figure 1
depicts these initiatives as the building blocks of the maintenance
management process. Wireman (1998) thinks that a preventive
maintenance program should be in place before we move to the
Figure 1: Maintenance Management Process Construction (Wireman, 98).
Wireman (1998) also defines a set of indicators
divided by groups: (a) corporate, (b) financial, (c) efficiency and
effectiveness, (d) tactical and (e) functional performance. The
above indicators must be properly connected to corporate
indicators. The goal of the performance indicators is to make
strategic objectives clear, tie
Campbell (1998) established a structure for
maintenance management presented in Figure 2. The process of
maintenance management starts
Run to failure
Preventive maintenance, age or use based
Condition based maintenance
Figure 2: Stages in the Process of Managing Maintenance (Campbell, 1998).
Finally, Campbell proposes the implementation of two of the most successful methods for the continuous improvement implementation, RCM and TPM. For quantum leap improvements in maintenance, he suggests the use of process reengineering techniques.
Pintelon and Van Vassenhove (1990) present a
maintenance management tool to evaluate maintenance performance.
They suggest the use of a control board and a set of
A generic framework for integrating the maintenance management is presented by Hassanain et al. (2001) for built-assets. Their framework consists of the following five sequential management processes:
Identify performance requirements
Assess assets current performance
Management of the maintenance operations.
Hassanain et al (2001) use an object model where the objects requirements and relationships for the exchange and sharing of maintenance information between applications are defined. Another interesting and integrative approach is described by Yoshikawa (1995). The idea is to pursue a more holistic approach in order to systemize the maintenance knowledge as a whole, making available the right information at the right place and at the right time in order to meet organizational agility for maintenance purposes (Morel el al., 2001).
In contrast to the existing literature, we think
that maintenance management consists of specific maintenance
related actions at the three levels of business activity:
strategic, tactical, and operational. Actions at the strategic
level deal with transforming business priorities into maintenance
priorities and designing mid-long
To enable and to ease the maintenance management process in an organization (at the three mentioned levels), we need to build a basic supporting structure. This structure will contain a set of main pillars characterized below:
The Maintenance Engineering Techniques Pillar. Besides the IT tools, a set of key techniques are another pillar of the maintenance management framework. RCM plays an important role in the strategic and tactical levels, defining maintenance plans to ensure desired equipment reliability. TPM focuses organizational efforts at the operational level to improve overall equipment effectiveness. Stochastic tools can be used to model the failures, allowing further use of quantitative techniques to optimize the maintenance management policies. Other OR/MM techniques focus on optimizing maintenance resources management. Interesting case studies about RCM and TPM can be found in Deshpande and Modak (2002) and Chand and Shirvani (2002), respectively. Further, some real life applications of optimization tools can be found in Crespo Marquez and Sanchez Herguedas (2002). These techniques are relatively more useful at the tactical level.
The Organizational Techniques Pillar. This pillar is as important as the previous ones and deals with the three levels of maintenance activity. Here, we include all techniques to foster relationships competency at the three levels of business activity. The purpose of these techniques is to ensure the best interface between different activity levels, different functions within the organization, and inter-organizational relationships. A good foundation for this pillar is a suitable level of motivation and involvement of the staff.
Summarizing the above discussion, our proposed process and framework for maintenance management is depicted in Table 2. The processes in Table 2 are continuous closed loop processes where feedback will be used for permanent improvement.
Maintenance Management Process
From business plan to maintenance plan, definition of maintenance priorities. A closed loop process.
From the maintenance plan to the resources assignment and task scheduling. A closed loop process.
Proper task completion and data recording. A closed loop process.
Maintenance Management Framework
CMMS, condition monitoring technologies.
Maintenance Engineering Techniques
RCM, TPM, reliability data analysis, maintenance policy optimization models, OR/MM models.
Relationships management techniques, motivation, operators involvement, etc.